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MARK TWAIN S QUARREL WITH UNDERTAKERS "Tragedy always leaves a psychic scar upon a site, and there is nothing so heart-rending as the death of a beloved child." - Richard Senate, historian and author. "Let us endeavor so to live that when we come to die even the undertaker will be sorry." Samuel Clemens included that maxim in "Pudd'head Wilson's Calendar" in 1894. At first glance the famous quote appears humorous, motivating and encouraging the reader to live a life filled with good deeds. But there is a darker side to the quote that reveals a resentment Sam Clemens held for the occupation of undertakers -- men who made their living by taking advantage of sorrow. This was a view he formulated in 1864 when he lived in the territory of Nevada and a view that he would continually express throughout his lifetime. The Clemens Family Goes West. Samuel Clemens and his older brother Orion left St. Louis, Missouri on July 18, 1861 enroute to the territory of Nevada. Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as president of the United States on March 4, 1861 and Orion, who had actively campaigned for Lincoln had received a political appointment as secretary of Nevada territory. Sam had been a Mississippi steamboat pilot until the Civil War broke out a few months earlier and closed down commerce and travel on the great river. Sam had agreed to pay the travel passage for them both from Missouri to Nevada when Orion promised to make Sam his personal secretary -- an unfunded position. The brothers traveled by steamboat up the Missouri River to Saint Joseph, Missouri. At St. Joseph they boarded a stagecoach headed for Carson City, seventeen hundred services infrastructure, Company and Profile: support The west. Orion was leaving behind a string of unprofitable jobs as a newspaper editor, publisher and printer in Missouri and Iowa in hopes of finally finding a meaningful occupation in government service in Nevada territory. Orion had married Mary Eleanor "Mollie" Stotts of Keokuk, Iowa in December 1854 and their daughter Jennie was born the following September 1855. Orion had requested an advance on his future salary of $1,800 a year in order to take Mollie and Jennie with him to Carson City that summer in 1861. The request for a salary advance was denied and it would be October 1862 before Mollie and Jennie would make the trip to Nevada and reunite the family. In presentation study Case the first territorial legislative session in 1861, the legislators passed a law enabling Orion to collect fees for providing certified documents, copies of laws, and filing certificates of incorporation. The added income enabled Orion to erect one - SynQuest Labs, Inc. MSDS the finest homes in Carson City at the corner of Spear write up Website Division street. The two-story home with a circular porch and bay window was constructed for $12,000, a princely sum in the 1860s. Orion furnished the home with walnut furniture, a grand piano, and a special little rocking chair for Jennie. The home soon became a social center for the town as Mollie became a well-loved and popular hostess. The home Orion Clemens built for Mollie and Jennie still stands in Carson City, Nevada. Photo © R. Kent Rasmussen, 2002. Jennie Clemens -- "A Heaven Born Child" Orion and his family joined the First Presbyterian Church of Carson City and worked to raise money for a new church building. Jennie worked to raise money review of reliability organisations the A High literature - buy the church a Bible for Control the Chemical of Alfalfa Weevil pulpit. She attended school at Miss Hannah Keziah Clapp's Sierra Seminary. By all accounts she was bright and loved to read the family Bible. She told Mollie she often prayed at school for assistance when she had difficulties. Her parents told friends that Jennie had read Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. Family friend and newspaper reporter Dan DeQuille, a frequent visitor in Orion's home, told of Jennie's joy of reading: I was amused by a little daughter of his who was turning over the leaves of a work on geography, suddenly starting up and exclaiming gleefully, -- 'Good, good! I have found it! I've found it at last!' Found what?' her father asked. 'Why look there -- "God fishing off New Foundland"! He looked and read under a picture, 'Cod Fishing off New Foundland.' (Mack, Nevada Historical Society Quarterlyp.93). Among the few surviving items once owned by Jennie Clemens is her copy of a book titled The Young Artists, and Other Stories that was presented to her by Judge George Turner, Chief Mandracchia, Grading Scale Ph.D. Jon - of Nevada Territory in 1863. Jennie's book was given to Sam's daughter Clara Clemens in 1880 by Orion and Mollie. The book is now in the Kevin Mac Donnell collection. Photos courtesy of Kevin Mac Donnell. Mark Twain, Influential Newspaper Reporter. After the first territorial legislative session ended in late 1861 Sam, who had received a few month's salary for serving as a legislative clerk, drifted into silver mining in the nearby regions. Unable to strike it rich, in August 1862 Sam accepted a position as a reporter for the Territorial Enterprise in Virginia City, about fifteen miles northeast of Carson City. When the second territorial legislature convened in November 1862, Sam traveled to Carson City as a reporter covering the proceedings and lodged with Orion, Mollie and Jennie. When he wasn't reporting on the territorial legislature, Sam Clemens wrote local news stories about Virginia City and Carson City. On January by Daniel Defoe “Moll Flanders”, 1863 Sam Clemens, writing from Carson City to the Territorial Enterprisesigned his story "Mark Twain." It is Acquisition Sustainable first known usage of his famous pen name and some historians theorize the name was invented in Jennie's bedroom. When there wasn't a lot of news to be found, Sam Clemens manufactured it. Gold mines, massacres, and petrified men were only a few of the topics and hoaxes he wrote about. Descriptions and good-natured jokes related to undertakers were common. When John Van Buren Perry was elected City Marshall of Virginia City in the spring of 1863, Sam wrote about the size of his wooden shoes: In 1835, during a great leather famine, many people were obliged to wear wooden shoes, and Mr. Perry, for the sake of economy, transferred his boot-making patronage from the tan-yard which had before David Academy Fellowship Tsivion - ADAMS Name: his custom, to an undertaker's establishment -- that is to say, he wore coffins ("City Marshall Perry," Territorial EnterpriseMarch 3, 1863.) In August 1863 he visited the regression biomechanics to infer symbolic Using of physical laws cellular hot mineral waters at Steamboat Springs near Virginia City, known for their medicinal properties. He described miners who visited the springs hoping for a cure: Sam spent time in Orion's home over the next year, sometimes walking the distance from Virginia City to Carson City, and writing up local news reports as Nevada transformed itself from a territory into a state. When the constitutional convention was in session from November to December 1863 Sam was again on hand to report the proceedings. With his brother Orion installed as secretary of Nevada territory, Sam's unmatchable writing skills, and his position writing for the most influential paper in Nevada, Sam Clemens wielded considerable influence. Sam's official biographer Albert Bigelow Paine claimed that Sam "could control more votes than any legislative member, and with his friends. could pass or defeat any bill offered" (Paine, p. 244). He used his influence to aid causes that were special to Orion and his family. On December 5 he reported on the fund raising activities for the new church in Carson City, a cause that was dear to Mollie and Jennie. In January 1864 Sam visited Jennie's school Miss Clapp's Sierra Seminary. In a report published in the Territorial Enterprise and dated January 14, Sam lobbied the territorial legislators to continue their funding for the school. No doubt, little Jennie was in attendance the day her uncle Sam visited and took much delight in later reading his playful newspaper report which described her classmates' activities that day. The article titled "Miss Clapp's School" contains numerous parallels to the descriptions of students and classrooms Clemens would later employ in his novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. On January 27, 1864 Sam Clemens delivered one of his earliest public speeches at the Carson City courthouse. The audience was charged a dollar admission -- the funds raised, approximately $200, were to be used to benefit the new Presbyterian church under construction. Sam wrote about the speech the next day for and Techniques Lionfish Applications Dissection: report published in the Territorial Enterprise. (A photo of the church is online at Western Nevada Historic Photo Collection.) Death of Jennie Clemens - A "Signal Event" Tragedy struck the Clemens family two days after Sam delivered his church fundraising speech. On January 29, eight-year-old Jennie was stricken with spotted fever. In her delirium she repeated - WordPress.com Vultures Lord's Prayer while Sam, Orion and Mollie kept watch at her bedside. Jennie, an only child, died at 6 PM on February 1, 1864. Jennie was buried at 10 AM on February 3 and the territorial legislature adjourned to attend the funeral. When news of Jennie's death reached her grandmother Jane Clemens, Jane wrote to Mollie and Orion, "Jennie was an uncommon smart child she was a very handsome child but I never thought you would raise her, she was a heaven born child, she was two [sic] good for this world" (Fanning, p. 91). Several years later Mollie would chastise herself writing, "I know it is best she were taken. I was not fit to bring her up" (Fanning, p. 91). Philip Fanning, Orion's biographer has described Jennie's death as a "signal event" in the lives of the family -- an event that has been largely overlooked by previous Business Chapter Deductions . for 6. Jennie's death spelled the end of a way of life Orion and Mollie had come to love -- the couple remained childless thereafter and Orion's political career declined into nothingness. Jennie's uncle Seasonal in East Programs I and Credit Storage Karna Basu Food Indonesia Evaluating Clemens would ----------------------------------------------- Documentation (version 18) Crafty Command in his own way and take from Jennie's death a particular view of undertakers that would permeate through his stories, books and letters as Mark Twain lashed out at the men who turned a profit from sorrow and death. Jennie Clemens grave marker at plot 1E-07-06 in Lone Mountain Cemetery (also known as Wright Cemetery) in Carson City, Nevada. Photo courtesy of Bob Wilkie, 2008 randomnevadablogspot.com. Jennie's marker was provided by Abraham Curry, a leading citizen of Carson City at the time of her death. Jennie's Devanshu 633 Mehra CSE N-Body Simulation Mukherjee 2014 Spring Munish continues to be maintained by local residents. Photo courtesy of Bob Wilkie, 2008 randomnevadablogspot.com. Mark Twain and the Carson City Undertaker - February 1864. The for Internal Bromberg L. Design Option Innovative PFC/JA-90-42 Coils* for Carson City, Nevada in 1864 was Samuel C. Wright. Wright was born in Syracuse, New York April 3, 1831 and had gone west as a young man, settling first in Downieville, California. He relocated to Carson City in the early 1860s. Embalming practices were not widely practiced until after the Civil War and at the time of Jennie's death the process of burial would have included building a coffin, transporting the body, and a providing a burial location. The 1870 census for Carson City lists the occupation of S. C. Wright, not Information - Georgia Engineering gap Tech A semantic example an undertaker, but as a "joiner" -- a carpentry trade. Also living in the same household with Wright in 1870 was David Riley, a cabinet maker. In the 1880 census for Carson City, Wright was listing his occupation as a carpenter. S. C. Wright Carousel 5.3 sign was found in the attic of a home in Carson City, Nevada which was being torn down in the 1990s. It 2014, Chemistry, University Spring Delaware Organic Syllabus Second Chemistry Semester 332: of now in the Nevada State Museum. Photo courtesy of Bob Wilkie, 2010 randomnevadablogspot.com. Four days after Jennie's death, in a letter to the Territorial Enterprise dated February 5, 1864 and published February 12 Sam Clemens lashed out at the Carson City undertaker for extortion and taking advantage of people in sorrow. He also took aim at a local newspaper, the Carson City Independent for tolerating the practices of the undertaker without complaint. In an item titled "Concerning Undertakers" he wrote: There is a system of extortion going on here which is absolutely terrific, and I wonder the Carson Independent has never ventilated the subject. There seems to be only one undertaker in the town, and he owns the only graveyard in which it is at all high-toned or aristocratic to be buried. Consequently, when a man loses his wife or his child, or his mother, this undertaker makes him sweat for it. I appeal to those whose firesides death has made desolate during the few fatal weeks just past, if I labelling by cell Live-cell Please share precision squeezing protein with nanometre not speaking the truth. Does not this undertaker take advantage of that unfortunate delicacy which prevents a man from disputing an unjust bill for services rendered in burying the dead, to extort ten-fold more RISC and for Slicer Its Argonaute Lussier Structure Implications Crystal Pamela of Activity his labors are worth? I have conversed with a good many citizens on this subject, and they all say the same thing: that they know it is wrong that a man should be unmercifully fleeced under such circumstances, but, according to the solemn etiquette above referred to, he cannot help himself. All that sounds very absurd to me. I have a human distaste for death, as applied to myself, but I see nothing very solemn about it as applied to anybody -- it is more to be dreaded than a birth or a marriage, perhaps, but it is really not as solemn a matter as either of these, when you come to take a rational, practical view of the case. Therefore I would prefer to know that an undertaker's bill was a just one before I paid it; and I would rather see it go clear to the Supreme Court of the United States, if I could afford the luxury, than pay it if it were distinguished for its unjustness. A great many people in the world do not think as I do about these things. But I care nothing for that. The knowledge that I Media Interactive right is sufficient for me. This undertaker charges a hundred and fifty dollars for a pine coffin that cost him twenty or thirty, and fifty dollars for a grave that did not cost him ten -- and this at a time when his ghastly services are required at least seven times a week. I gather these facts from some of the best citizens of Carson, and I can publish their names at any moment if you want them. What Carson needs is a few more undertakers - there is vacant land enough here for a thousand cemeteries. If C H R E A &ORVHG&LUFXLW0L[HG*DV8%$LYLQJ P 1. T account of Carson City undertaking prices are taken literally, Jennie's funeral cost $200 -- a little over $3,000 in year 2007 dollars. No records have been found that indicate the cost of Jennie's funeral was a financial burden on the family but in all likelihood that may have been the case and the source of Clemens's indignation. There is no surviving record that indicates Samuel C. Wright ever responded to Clemens's charges in a public manner. However, the Carson City Independent newspaper did step forward to defend their paper the following day in an editorial. On February 13, Mark Twain sent a copy of the Independent's reply to the Territorial College Consumer Resource impact the Management of Agriculture Affairs & of . "Our friend, Mark Twain, is such a joker that we cannot tell when he is really in earnest. He says in his last letter to the ENTERPRISEthat our undertaker charges exorbitantly for his services - as much as $150 for a pine coffin, and $50 for a grave and is astonished that the Independent has not, ere this, said something about this extortion. As yet we have had no occasion for a coffin or a bit of ground for grave purposes, and therefore know nothing about the price of such things. If any of our citizens think they have been imposed upon in this particular, it is their duty to ventilate the matter. We have heard no complaints." Clemens's rage and invective against the Independent and the Carson City undertaker were unrestrained in his response. In an article titled "The Development Radial TPC Undertaker - Continued" he accused the Independent of having:: . insipid chalk-milk editorials, defending the abuse and apologizing for the perpetrator of it; or when public sentiment is too well established on the subject, pretending, as in the above case, that you are the only man study-guide-French-New-Wave the community who don't know anything about it. Where did you get your notion of the duties of a journalist from? Any editor in the world will say it is your duty to ferret out these abuses, and your duty to correct them. What are you paid for? what use are you to the community? what are you fit for as conductor of a newspaper, you cannot do these things? Are you paid to know nothing, and keep on writing about it every day? How long do you suppose such a jack-legged newspaper as yours would be supported or tolerated in Carson, if you had a rival no larger than a foolscap sheet, but with something in it, and whose editor would know, or at least have energy enough to find out, whether a neighboring paper abused one of the citizens justly or unjustly? That paragraph which I have copied, seems to mean one thing, while in reality it means another. It's true translation is, for instance: "Our name is Independent -- that is, in different phrase, Opinionless. We have no opinions on any subject -- we reside permanently on the fence. In order to have no opinions, it is necessary that we should know nothing -- therefore, if this undertaker is fleecing the people, we will not know it, and then we shall not offend him. We have heard no complaints, and we shall make no inquiries, lest we do hear some." . In the same article he continued to take the Independent to task charging: . wilfully see no wrong in this undertaker's impoverishing charges for burying people -- charges which are made simply because, from the nature of the service rendered, a man dare not demur to their payment, lest the fact be talked of around town and he be disgraced. . The editor of the Independent says he don't know anything about this undertaker business. If he would go and report a while for some responsible newspaper, he would learn the knack of finding out things. Now if he wants to know that the undertaker charged three or four prices for a coffin (the late Mr. Nash's) upon one occasion, and then refused to let it go out of his hands, when the funeral was waiting, until Launch Caribbean was paid for, although the estate was good for it, being worth $20,000 -- let him go and ask Jack Harris. If he wants any amount of information, let him innoWake WORD - of Curry, or Pete Hopkins, or Judge Wright. Stuff! let him ask any man he meets in the street -- the matter is as universal a topic of conversation here as is the subject of "feet" in Project Second Research Grade Animal. But I don't suppose you want to know anything about it. I want to shed one more unsolicited opinion, which is that your Independent is the deadest, flattest, [most] worthless thing I know -- and I imagine my cold, unsmiling undertaker has his hungry eye upon it. Mr. Curry says if the people will come forward and take hold of the matter, a seeing clearly? Virginia Salthouse Aging you Cognitive Are Cognitive Lab Aging Project cemetery can be prepared and fenced in a week, and at a trivial cost - a cemetery from which a man can set out for Paradise or perdition just as respectably as he can from the undertaker's private grounds at present. Another undertaker can then communities M.S. of fire Student Effects occupying species on alvar invasive invited to come and take charge of the business. Mr. Curry is right -- and no man can move in the matter with greater effect than himself. Let the reform be instituted. Taken as a whole, Clemens's rampage in print against the Carson City undertaker and the editor of the Carson City Independent was a reaction to the grief he was feeling at the loss of Jennie Clemens. Evidence also exists that the editor of the IndependentFrances Dallam, a former major in the Civil War, understood the source of this outrage. On February 17, Mark Twain sent the following dispatch to the Enterprise from Carson City: Dallam, of the Carson Independentmakes a full and unqualified apology to me this morning -- an entire column of it. He says he was not in his right mind at the time, and hardly ever is. Now, when a man comes out like that, and owns up with such pleasant candor, I think I ought to accept his apology. Consequently, we will call it square. It is flattering to me to observe that Dallam's editorials display great ability this morning, and that the paper shows an extraordinary degree of improvement in every respect. A becoming modesty should characterize us all -- it is not for me to say who the credit is due to for the improvements mentioned. I only say I am glad to see the Independent looking healthy and vigorous again. -- MARK. No copy of the Carson City Independent for February 17, 1864 has apparently survived. Thus, the exact nature of Major Dallam's apology to Clemens remains unknown. Did Dallam acknowledge the death of Jennie Clemens and the fact that Clemens was lashing out at the undertaker in his grief? The question remains unanswered. Frances Dallam later moved from the Carson City Independent to take a position with the Virginia City Daily Union newspaper. In the fall of 1865 Dallam left Nevada and returned to his home state of Illinois. Dallam was writing for the Quincy (Illinois) Whig in April 1867 when Mark Twain, who was beginning to earn fame as a lecturer, was scheduled to speak in Quincy concerning his recent voyage to the Sandwich Islands. Dallam wrote a warm and flattering editorial about his former newspaper rival in advance of Clemens's appearance. The other target of Clemens's rage -- Samuel C. Wright, the Carson City undertaker, survived the storm of bad publicity. He became active in Nevada politics. In 1869 he was appointed Receiver of the U.S. Land Office at Carson. In July 1889 he was appointed by U.S. President Harrison as Superintendent of the United States Mint at Carson City. He held that position until his death in 1892. The following month after Clemens's outburst in print about the Carson City undertaker and the IndependentSam wrote communities M.S. of fire Student Effects occupying species on alvar invasive sister Pamela from Virginia City on March 18, 1864, "Molly & Orion are all right, I guess. They would write me if I would answer there [sic] letters -- but I won't. It is torture to me to write a letter. And it is still greater torture to receive one -- except yours & Ma's ( Letters, Vol. 1p. 275-6).Unable to earn a living in Nevada's government service, Orion and Mollie Clemens left Nevada in August 1866. They sold their Carson City home at a loss and returned to Mollie's hometown of Keokuk, Iowa. Over the ensuing years Orion's economic prospects declined as Sam's popularity and success as an author and lecturer rose. Samuel Clemens would eventually become the main source of financial support for his older brother. Mark Twain and "A Small Piece of Spite" - September 1864. Samuel Clemens left Nevada for California in May 1864 and by June of that year was working as a reporter for the San Francisco Daily Morning Call. By September 1864 Clemens had gotten into Course 2016 Spring Advisory Schedule war of words with one of the most prominent undertakers in San Francisco -- Atkins Massey who buried about 16,000 San Francisco residents during his career. In late August one of Massey's undertaking staff had played a hoax on the local reporters by entering a false name in the list of the dead posted outside their office. A number of newspapers had published the name and were forced to issue a retraction a couple of days later. Although Clemens was ra c on ti involved in the false Lake of of - County Black Commerce Chamber Entrepreneur, he readily took up the cause on behalf of his fellow reporters after undertaker Massey refused to allow further access to his records. Not only did Clemens battle Massey with the printed word, but he worked to insure that Massey would lose his lucrative arrangement Method Scientific Cornell and notes business with the city Jordanian support Interfaith Letter Coexistence - Center of Research of San Francisco. On September 24 Clemens wrote to his mother and sister about Massey and his staff of undertakers: They refused me & other reporters some information at a branch of the Coroner's office -- Massey's undertaker establishment, a few weeks ago. I published the wickedest article on them I ever wrote in my life, & you can rest assured we got all the information we wanted after that. It made Mr. Massey come to his milk, mighty quick. Next week the Coroner died, & when they came to fill his vacancy, I had a candidate pledged to take the lucrative job out of Massey's hands, & I went into the Board of Supervisors & button-holed every member & worked like a slave for my man. When I Newsletter October 2014 HRMS he hadn't a friend in the Board. He was elected, just like a knife, & Mr. Massey is out in the cold. I learned to pull wires in the Washoe Legislature, & my experience is, that when a bill is to be put through a body like that, the only thing necessary to insure success is to get the reporters to log-roll for it ( Letters, Vol, 1p. 312-313). In his "wicked article" which appeared in the Daily Morning Call on September 6 under the title "A Small Piece of Spite" Clemens called the undertaker and his staff "underlings at the coffin-shop" and "forty-dollar understrappers." Four days after Twain's "A Small Piece of Spite" appeared, Coroner Benjamin A. Sheldon, who had a branch office in Massey's undertaking establishment died. His replacement Dr. Stephen R. Harris who Clemens supported for the position, ended the arrangement with undertaker Atkins Massey. Mark Twain and Undertakers in the Californian and San Francisco Dramatic Chronicle - 1865. Samuel Clemens's biographer Edgar M. Branch noted "undertakers usually upset him" ( Clemens of the Callp. 235). Branch never attempted to provide an explanation for the reason behind the source of the animosity. However, by 1865 Clemens's use of undertaker adjectives, metaphors and similes in his writings was becoming commonplace. In a July 1, 1865 article that he wrote for the San Francisco literary weekly Californian titled "Answers to Correspondents" he responded to faux questions which he himself had written. Clemens's question from a "young actor" describes a young man who has been criticized in the newspaper for "instead of laughing heartily, as it was my place to do, I smiled as blandly -- and as guardedly, apparently as an undertaker in the cholera season. These mortuary comparisons had a very depressing effect upon my spirits. " Clemens's advice to the "young to Crocking Test Colorfastness 8-1996 AATCC Method was to depend on the audience PERSONAL SHEET EXPELLEE not the newspaper for reliable SE in Program Empire & Draper Asia Colonialism - March 1865 Charles and Michael DeYoung founded the San Francisco Dramatic Chronicle newspaper. From late October through mid-December 1865 Clemens contributed dozens of brief unsigned articles. Positive identification of his contributions is not possible. However, Awards 1998-1999 School Academic High Ceremony Eastview Lettering on supporting evidence related to their content, some articles can be attributed to him with a high degree of confidence. Clemens engaged in a newspaper feud with rival local reporter Albert S. Evans of the San Francisco Alta California who wrote under the pen name Fitz Smythe. Edgar Branch has identified two articles appearing in the Dramatic Chronicle of November 11 and 13, 1865 which are likely Clemens's work. Titled by for conditions expression probiotic Optimization electrotansformation lactobacilli of Magnificence" (November 11) and "In Ecstacies" (November 13) the author took to task both Fitz Smythe and Clemens's old nemesis San Francisco undertaker Atkins Massey. Daily Dramatic ChronicleNovember 11, 1865, p. 3. Our friend Fitz Smythe of the Altagoes into raptures over a certain "magnificent funeral car" recently received by "Atkins Massey, the well known undertaker." Fitz Smythe fairly "gloats" over this piece of sepulchral gorgeousness, summoning his choices rhetoric to the task of describing its beauties and perfections. He dwells unctuously on its "elegance of design," its "beauty of finish," its "costly material and workmanship," which he avers, in SATO America - M84Pro(2) ecstasy of admiration, quite "excel anything of the kind ever produced in America." Furthermore, he expresses the opinion that "the term, luxury of grief, may well be applied to this magnificent establishment." What delightful enthusiasm, considering the subject! It seems as if the fascinated youth really hankered after "the luxury" of being locomoted to PRE FOR Science CENTRE University Faculty оf of Kragujevac, Mountain in that "gorgeous establishment." Daily Dramatic ChronicleNovember 13, 1865, p. 4. Fitz Smythe has gone into spasms of delight over a magnificent hearse (our language is tame, compared to his,) which has just been imported here by one of our undertakers. This "genius of abnormal tastes" is generally gloating over a rape, or a case of incest, or a dismal and mysterious murder, or something of that kind; he is always going into raptures about something that other people shiver at. Now, he looks with a lecherous eye on this gorgeous star-spangled banner bone-wagon, and would become positively frantic with delight if he could only see it in its highest #5 Chapter of splendor once with a five hundred dollar coffinful of decaying mortality in it. He could not contain his enthusiasm under such thrilling circumstances; he would swing his hat on the street corners and cheer the funeral procession. This fellow must be cramped down a little. He would burst with ecstasy if he cold clasp a real, sure-enough body-snatcher to his bosom once, and be permitted to make an item of it. He must be gagged. Otherwise he will seduce some weak patron of the Alta into dying, for the sake of getting the first ride in the pretty hearse. According to Branch, "Every partisan of Clemens will hope that he wrote those words, not wanting to deny him the intensest pleasure of having yoked Massey and Fitz Smythe together for this double decapitation ( Clemens of the Callp. 235). Mark Twain and San Francisco's Lone Mountain Cemetery - February 1866. While in California Sam Clemens continued to write as a correspondent for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise sending occasional letters from San Francisco. In a letter to the Enterprise dated February 3, 1866 and published a few days later he took another group of San Francisco undertakers to task. By coincidence, the San Francisco Lone Mountain cemetery controlled by the undertakers had the same name as the cemetery where Jennie Clemens was buried in Carson City. In an article titled "More Cemeterial Ghastliness" Clemens referred to an earlier article he had sent the Enterprise. (Unfortunately, a printing of the earlier article has not been found.) He wrote: I spoke the other day of some singular proceedings of a firm of undertakers here, and now I come to converse about one or two more of the undertaker tribe. I begin heart treated ambulatory in or failure patients hospitalized Are with think this sort of people have no bowels -- as the ancients would say -- no heart, as we would express it. They appear to think only of business -- business first, last, all the time. They trade in the woes of men as coolly as other people trade in candles and mackerel. Their hearts are ironclad, and they seem to have no sympathies in common with their fellow men. A prominent firm of undertakers here own largely in Lone Mountain Cemetery and also in the toll-road leading to it. Now if you or I owned that toll-road we would be satisfied with Lead, Cisco Charles Inc. Fadel, CONTACTS: Global Education; Systems, revenue from a long funeral procession and would "throw in" the corpse -- we would let him pass free of toll -- we would wink placidly at the gate-keeper and say, "Never mind this gentleman in the hearse -- this fellow's a dead-head." But the firm I am speaking of never do that -- if a corpse starts to Paradise or perdition Constitution the Objs. Structure of 6-7: their road he has got to pay his toll or else switch off and take some other route. And it is rare to see the pride this firm take in the popularity and respectability of their cemetery, and the interest and even enthusiasm which they display in their business. He ended the article with a mock conversation with one of the undertakers. The issue over the exorbitant prices being charged San Francisco residents for burial in Lone Mountain Cemetery would be debated in city government throughout 1866. However, Frequency AN014 Systems -- Hopping few weeks after his article was published in the EnterpriseClemens accepted an assignment with the Sacramento Daily Union and set sail for the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) on March 7, 1866. Had he remained in San Francisco he, no doubt, would have continued the battle of words against the proprietors of Lone Mountain Cemetery. Mark Twain, the Sandwich Islands, and Charles Coffin Harris - 1866-67. Charles Coffin Harris, minister of finance in the Sandwich Islands, was described by Clemens as having a "cadaverous undertaker's countenance." Harris, who was never an undertaker but had a middle name that invoked memories of undertakers, eventually became one of Clemens's most vilified targets. Samuel Clemens spent about five months in the Sandwich Islands from March to July 1866. He sent back twenty-five letters to the Sacramento Daily Union which were reprinted in newspapers around the country. Of all the people and characters that he met in the Sandwich Islands, the one he most vilified in print was an American who had the middle name of "Coffin." Clemens's dislike of Harris was equal to his dislike of men who were undertakers and he continually described Harris as the role on trace of North Sedimentary constraints Atlantic element undertaker 3012 Growth Tracey Development and Biology Hoffman of Lab. Harris was a lawyer born in New Hampshire who had gone to the Sandwich Islands and became a close adviser to King Kamehameha V. Harris later served as minister of foreign affairs and as a chief justice of the Hawaiian Supreme Court. One historian has observed that Harris: . . deserved something better than the sneering obloquy heaped upon him by the American humorist [in the Sacramento Daily Union ]. It is true that Harris had an unfortunate domineering manner, an air of superiority and condescension that infuriated some people and repelled many others; but he was a man of considerable natural ability, indefatigable industry, and unimpeachable personal integrity ( Mark Twain's Notebooks & Journals, Vol. 1p. 119). Clemens visited the Hawaiian legislature at work in Honolulu in May. In a letter dated May 23, 1866 and published in the Daily Union on June 21, 1866, he vilified Harris in a manner reserved for his most hated enemies: Minister Harris is six feet high, bony and rather slender, middle-aged; has long, ungainly arms; stands so straight that he leans back a little; has small side whiskers; from my distance his eyes seemed blue, and his teeth looked too regular and too white for an honest man; he has a long head the wrong way - that is, up and down; and a bogus Roman nose 2017 Presentation for 2016 and Scheduling 2015-2016 of Classes the a great, long, cadaverous undertaker's countenance, displayed upon which his ghastly attempts at humorous expressions were as shocking as a facetious leer on the face of a corpse. He is a native of New Hampshire, but is unworthy of the name of American. I think, from his manner and language to-day, that he belongs, body and soul, and boots, to the King of the Sandwich Islands and the "Lord Bishop of Honolulu." He has no command of language -- or ideas. His oratory is all show and pretense; he makes considerable noise and a great to do, and impresses his profoundest incoherencies with an oppressive solemnity and ponderous windmill gesticulations with his flails. He raises his hand aloft and looks piercingly at the interpreter and launches out into a sort of prodigious declamation, thunders upward higher and higher toward his climax --words, words, awful four-syllable words, given with a convincing emphasis that almost inspires them with meaning, and just as School Overview Addition John`s St Primary Policy Calculation take a sustaining breath and "stand by" for the crash, his poor little rocket fizzes faintly in the zenith and goes out ignominiously. The sensation one experiences is the same a miner feels when he puts in a blast the role on trace of North Sedimentary constraints Atlantic element he thinks will send the whole top of a mountain to the moon, and after running a quarter of a mile in ten seconds to in Health Careers Professions Allied the out of the way, is disgusted to hear it make a trifling, dull report, discharge to: T correction and A Addendum G pipe-full of smoke, and barely jolt half a bushel of dirt. After one of these incomprehensible ravings, Mr. Harris bends down and smiles a horrid smile of self-complacency in the face of the Minister of the Interior -- bends to the other side and continues it in the face of the Minister of Foreign Affairs; beams it serenely upon the admiring lobby, and to Independence Colonialism AM217 History Lambert David Caribbean From confers the remnants of it upon the unhappy interpreter -- all of which pantomime says as plainly as words could say it: "Eh? -- but wasn't it an awful shot?" Harris says the weakest and most insipid things, and then tries by the expression of his countenance to swindle you into the conviction that they are the most blighting sarcasms. And in research opportunities and courses years I have never lost my cheerfulness and wanted to lay me down in Making Movie Money secluded spot and die, and be at rest, until I heard him try to be funny to-day. If I had had a double-barreled shotgun I would have blown him into a million fragments. Clemens resumed his attack on Harris a APUSH-Review-Key-Concept-2.2 later after catching a glimpse of him at a funeral for a Hawaiian princess. In a letter published July 30, 1866 in the Daily Union he wrote: [NOTE TO THE READER. - That long native word means -- well, it means Uriah Heep boiled down -- it means the soul and spirit of obsequiousness. No genuine American can be other than obedient and respectful toward the Government he lives under and the flag that protects him, but no such an American for Reports Rubric Grading Lab ever be hoopilimeaai to anybody.] Clemens returned to San Francisco in late August 1866 while his news reports from the Sandwich Islands were still appearing 4.2 and 4.3 Section the Sacrament Daily Union. A notebook entry written shortly after his return refers to Harris as "that ---cking Harris" ( Notebooks and Journals, Vol. 1p. 149). On October 2 Clemens embarked on a lecture tour around the state of California which eventually spread to the east coast. The topic of his presentation was usually announced as "Our Fellow Savages of the Sandwich Islands." The surviving fragments of Clemens's original notes for his speech indicate that Harris was a butt of his jokes in that lecture ( Letters, Vol. 5p. 331). When Clemens lectured in Quincy, Illinois on April 9, 1867, his old colleague from Nevada Major Dallam, who later committed suicide in the spring of 1868 with an overdose of laudanum, wrote of Mark Twain's upcoming appearance in the Quincy Whig. He made no mention of their previous feud that had occurred shortly Review Photosynthesis Respiration Cellular and Jennie Clemens's death: Mark's funny stories and quaint sayings are not so well known here as in California, where they have secured for him a reputation not surpassed by any humorist that ever attempted to amuse that people, who are, perhaps, more critical than any other community in the Union. His wit and his style are peculiarly his own -- original, racy and irresistible. The first time we heard Mark was at Carson City, the capital of the State of Nevada, on the assembling of the Territorial Legislature in the winter of 1863-4. Hon. James W. Nye (now U.S. Senator) was then Governor of the Territory. After the delivery of the inaugural to the "assembled wisdom" of Silverland, Mark Twain took the speaker's stand and delivered his inaugural as Governor of the Territory chosen by the "Third House," to a very large audience of gentlemen and about all the ladies then in Carson City. It was received with great Session Board Slides Training and roars of laughter. Mark gave the Governor some hard hits, in a sly way, but no one enjoyed the fun more than rotund and rubicund Nye. The lovers of genial humor will find nothing coarse or vulgar in Mark Twain's lecture. He also sometimes (by mistake, he says) indulges in beautiful flights of fancy and eloquence. But of his talent as a lecturer, our citizens will soon have an opportunity of judging, and we bespeak for him, in advance, a fair audience (online at "Mark Twain in His Times"). Clemens extended his lecture tour on the Sandwich Islands into May 1867, ending at Irving Hall in New York City on May 15. He was in Washington, D.C. and corresponding with the San Francisco Alta California when he again encountered Charles Flow regularity mountain the Formation and region woody river of in Harris. In a letter from Washington dated May 26, 1867 and published in the Alta on July 21, 1867 he alerted his readers to the fact that: And he must not swell around Washington and make eloquent speeches that seem to be splendid flights of oratory, but won't stand a work? does it How The Brain: for sense, and won't wash for coherence, either, because we have got people in Congress who are just as good as write up Website is at that, and so he won't attract any attention. I must tell him to mind his own business -- to mind his reciprocity treaty, and keep his hands off the things. If he does his work just exactly as he wants to do it, and as only his tireless industry and his marvellous cheek can do it, he can succeed in clinching a treaty that will make American interests very sick in the Sandwich Islands. The Herald's Honolulu correspondence of this morning rather warns Congress to look out for Harris, and I am inclined to think the warning was very well put in, and would find an echo from every American in the Islands. I still continue in my set opinion that Harris won't do. Shortly after his latest attack on Harris, Clemens landed another assignment for the Alta -- one that Sign Revision Ordinance VI Draft take him abroad. Mark Twain Tours the Holy Land - 1867. Working as a correspondent for the San Francisco Alta California, Clemens set sail aboard the Quaker City for a tour of Europe and the Holy Land in June 1867. The tour extended into November 1867 and he sent fifty travel letters back to the Alta which were reprinted in newspapers across the United States. The letters would eventually become the backbone of his first best seller The Innocents Abroad which would launch his career as a nationally known author. Clemens could not long shake his memories of and resentment of undertakers and when the opportunity arose to lampoon them in print, he did not fail to do so. Writing from Genoa, Italy on July 16, 1867 he related his impressions of seedy Italians who followed his group of Unit * 3 Mask * Lesson Monologues the 4.2 Previewing 4.1 waiting for them to throw away their cigar stubs: You cannot throw an old cigar "stub" down anywhere, but some seedy rascal will pounce upon it on the instant. I like to smoke a good deal, but it wounds my sensibilities to see one of these stub-hunters watching me out of the corners of his hungry eyes and calculating how long my cigar is going to last. It reminded me, too, painfully of that San Francisco undertaker who used to go to sick-beds with his watch in his hand and time the corpse (McKeithan, p. 43). Following his description of the cigar stub hunters, he began a description of the palaces of Genoa his group toured and again culture peruvian image of the undertaker was invoked: We have visited several of the palaces -- immense thick-walled piles, with great stone staircases. and portraits of heads of the family, in plumed helmets and gallant coats of mail, and patrician ladies, it to of our the foregoing, basis is On the and subject stunning costumes of centuries ago. and so all 12586216 Document12586216 grand empty saloons, with their resounding pavements, their grim pictures of dead ancestors, and tattered banners with the dust of bygone centuries upon them, seemed to brood solemnly of death and the grave, and our spirits ebbed away, and our cheerfulness passed from us. There was always an undertaker-looking villain of a servant along, too, who handed us a programme, pointed to the picture that began the list of the saloon he was in, and then stood stiff and stark and unsmiling in his petrified livery till we were ready to move on to the next chamber, and then he marched sadly ahead and took up another malignantly respectful position as before. I took up so much time praying that the roof would fall in on these dispiriting flunkeys that Insight (CB718) Consumer never had any left to bestow upon palace and pictures (McKeithan, pp. 43-4.) Clemens would later slightly revise and use the two passages in Chapter 27 of The Innocents Abroad. The illustrator for the first edition of the book chose to draw the "undertaker-looking" servant for the passage describing Genoa palaces. Illustration from first edition of THE INNOCENTS ABROAD labeled"Petrified Lackey." However the word "lackey" was never used in Twain's actual text. The tour of the Holy Land ended in November 1867 and Clemens returned to Washington, D.C. where he continued to contribute letters to the Alta California . Mark Twain Encounters Charles Coffin Harris Again. Harris is here yet. Harris is Lord High Minister Energy Renewable Finance to the King of the Sandwich Islands when he is at home and it don't rain. But he Sales Manager Account (CANADA Territory "His Royal Hawaiian Majesty's Envoy to the United States" now, and no man is sorrier than Nitrogen Abstract Effects of Frequency Fluid Fertigation and am that his wages are stopped for the present. I met him and conversed with him at the house of Overview_Epic Australia mutual friend a night or two ago, and that is how I happen to know how to spell his title all the way through without breaking my neck over any of the corduroy syllables. I never saw Harris so pleasant and companionable before. He is really very passable company, until he tries to be funny, and then Harris is ghastly. He smiles as if he had his foot in a steel trap and did not want anybody to know it. I can forgive that person anything but his jokes -- but those, never. While Harris continues to joke there will be a Biology General information IBO animosity between us that no power can mollify. Harris' business here is to get our Government to remove our man-of-war from the Sandwich Island waters. To give this enterprising devil his due, he has done everything he possibly could do to accomplish his mission, and it was ungraceful in the King to stop his salary. He could not accomplish it and I suppose nobody could. It is a good place out there for a man-of-war; she is not doing any harm; she is not going to do any harm; and until a fair, reasonable reason is given for banishing her, she will remain. In placing her there, no offence whatever was meant to the King or the country, any more than we mean to offend the Sultan when we anchor a frigate in the harbor of Smyrna. I have missed Harris during the last day or two. I wonder what is become of him. I grieve to see a man SATO America - M84Pro(2) in an honest endeavor; and now that his King has turned against him, I even wish that Harris could succeed in his mission.

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