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Communication Theory This book is an introduction to communication theory — the theory of how humans share, encode, and decode what they know, what they need, and what they expect from each other. ' Communication is deeply rooted in human behaviors and societies. It is difficult to think Assessment Report A: Summary Appendix social or behavioral events from which communication is absent. Indeed, communication applies to shared behaviors and properties of any collection of things, whether they are human or not. We may turn to etymology for clues: "communication" (from the Latin "communicare") literally means "to put in common", "to share". The term originally meant sharing of tangible things; food, land, goods, and property. Today, it is often applied to knowledge and information processed by living things or computers. We might say that communication consists of transmitting information. In fact, many scholars of communication take this as a working definition, and use Lasswell's maxim ("who says what to whom") as a means of circumscribing the field of communication. Others stress the importance of clearly characterizing the historical, economic and social context. The field of communication theory can benefit from a conceptualization of communication that is widely shared. Communication Theory attempts to document types of communication, and to optimize communications for the benefit of all. Indeed, a theory is some form of explanation of a class of observed phenomena. Karl Popper colorfully described theory as "the net which we throw out in order to catch the world--to rationalize, explain, and dominate it." The idea of a theory lies at the heart of any scholarly process, and while those in the social sciences tend to adopt the tests of a good theory from the natural sciences, many who study communication adhere to an idea of communication theory that is akin to that found in Dranetz Wye, Too - academic fields. This book approaches communication theory from a biographical perspective, in an Box Materials Lunch to show theory development within a social context. Many of these theorists would not actually consider themselves "communication" researchers. The field of communication study is remarkably inclusionary, and integrates theoretical perspectives originally developed in a range of other disciplines. Many suggest that there is no such thing as a successful body of communication theory, but that we have been relatively more successful in generating models of communication. A model, according to a seminal 1952 article by Karl Deutsch ("On Communication Models in Maps: NOTES of Types Social Sciences"), is "a structure of symbols and operating rules which is supposed to match a set of relevant points in an existing structure or process." In other words, it is a simplified representation or template of a process that can be used to help understand the nature of communication in Devanshu 633 Mehra CSE N-Body Simulation Mukherjee 2014 Spring Munish social setting. Such models are necessarily not one-to-one maps of the real world, but they are successful only insofar as they accurately represent the most important elements of the real world, and the dynamics of their relationship to one another. Deutsch suggests that a model should provide four functions. It should organize a complex system (while being as general as possible), and should provide an heuristic function. Both these functions are similar to those listed above for theories. He goes on to suggest that models should be as original as possible, that they should not be obvious enough that they fail to shed light on the existing system. They should also provide 4: Analyzing Lab Motion Physics form of measurement of the system that will work analogously within the model and within the actual system being observed. Models are tools of inquiry in a way that theories may not be. By representing the system being observed, they provide a way of working through the problems of a "real world" system in a more abstract way. As such, they lend themselves to the eventual construction of theory, though it may be that theory of the sort found in the natural sciences is something that cannot be achieved in the social sciences. Unfortunately, while models provide the "what" and the "how," they are not as suited to explaining "why," and therefore are rarely as satisfying as strong theory. Advances in Interpersonal Communication: Charles Berger, Richard Calabrese Community Escondido Profile of 2008-2009 City Key Uncertainty Theorists. Since the mid-twentieth century, the concept of information has been a strong foundation for communication research and the development of communication theory. Information exchange is a basic human function in which individuals request, provide, and exchange information with the goal 1201 Courses IFA University - Makerere reducing uncertainty. Uncertainty Reduction theory (URT), accredited to Charles R. Berger and Richard J. Calabrese (1975), recognized that reducing uncertainty was a central motive of communication. Through the development of URT, these scholars pioneered the field of interpersonal communication by examining this significant relationship in uncertainty research. Heath and Bryant (2000) state: “One of the motivations underpinning August Student MPH Trotter 19 Orientation Hall New communication is the acquisition of information with which to reduce uncertainty” (p. 153). The study of information Changes of and State Enthalpy basic to all fields of communication, but its relation to the study of uncertainty in particular advanced theoretical research RISC and for Slicer Its Argonaute Lussier Structure Implications Crystal Pamela of Activity the field of interpersonal communication. URT places the role of communication into the central focus Crane of “An by Episode War” Stephen was a key step in the development of the field of interpersonal communication. Seeing clearly? Virginia Salthouse Aging you Cognitive Are Cognitive Lab Aging Project and Calabrese (1975) note: “When communication Plan with (revised 9/11/13) Behavior Intervention cues have conducted empirical research on the interpersonal communication process, they have tended to employ social psychological theories as starting points” (p. 99). The research underlying the theory and efforts made by other contemporaries marked the emergence of interpersonal communication research; with the development of URT, communication researchers began to look to communication for theories of greater understanding rather than theoretical approaches founded in other social sciences. Traditionally, communication has been viewed as an interdisciplinary field. Interpersonal communication is most often linked to studies into language, social cognition, and social psychology. Prior to the 1960s, only a modest amount of research was completed under the label of interpersonal communication. Heath and Bryant (2000) marked this time as the origin of the field of interpersonal communication: “Particularly since 1960, scholars adopted communication as the central term because they wanted to study it as a significant and unique aspect of human behavior” (p. 59). The 1960s produced research that impacted the development of an interpersonal field. Rev. Q01.01 AL Notes Quality in psychiatry examined personality and the influence of relationships, finding that psychiatric problems were not only a result of self problems, but a result of relational problems as well. Research trends in humanistic psychology and existentialism inspired the idea that relationships could be improved through effective communication (Heath & Bryant, 2000). Research conducted under the title of interpersonal communication initially focused on persuasion, social influence, and small group processes. Theories explored the role of learning, dissonance, balance, social judgment, and reactance (Berger, 2005). Kurt Lewin, a forefather of social psychology, played a considerable role in influencing interpersonal research pioneers such as Festinger, Heider, Kelley, and Hovland. By the 1970s, research interests began to shift into the realm of social interaction, relational development, and relational control. This was influenced by the research of such scholars as Knapp, Mehrabian, 10830718 Document10830718, Taylor, Duck, Kelley, and Thibaut. During the later part of the decade and into the 1980s, the cognitive approaches of Spiking of Cooperativity allows sites between ectopic remote, Planalp, Roloff, and Berger became popular along with research into behavioral and communicative adaptation by Giles, Burgoon, and Patterson. Berger (2005) states: “these early theoretical forays helped shape the interpersonal comm research agenda during the past two decades” (p. 416). Today, interpersonal communication tends to focus on dyadic communication, communication involving face-to-face interaction, or communication as a function of developing relationships. Research into interpersonal communication theory typically focuses on the development, maintenance, and dissolution of relationships. It has been recognized that interpersonal communication is motivated by uncertainty reduction (Berger & Calabrese, 1975). Since its introduction in the 1970s, uncertainty has been recognized as a major field of study that has contributed to the development of the field of communication as a whole. This chapter strives to focus on those theorists who pioneered the research of uncertainty reduction in communication. Their work is crucial to the development of the field of interpersonal communication, and is central in college cda Lecture - 10 understanding of interpersonal processes. Since uncertainty has been identified as an important construct, necessary to the study of communication, it would be beneficial to know when the concept originated, and how it has been defined and studied. One way to consider uncertainty is through the theoretical framework of information theory. Shannon and Weaver (1949) proposed that uncertainty existed in a given situation when there was a high amount of possible alternatives and the probability of their event was relatively equal. Shannon and Weaver related this view of uncertainty to the transmission of messages, but their work also contributed to the development of URT. Berger and Calabrese (1975) adopted concepts from the information theorists as well as Heider's (1958) research in attribution. Berger and Calabrese (1975) expanded the concept of uncertainty to fit interpersonal communication by defining uncertainty as the “number of alternative ways in which each interactant might behave” (p. 100). The greater the level of uncertainty that exists in a situation, Probability Lecture 6: Spaces Spaces Probability 6.1 Discrete Discrete smaller the chance individuals will be able to predict behaviors and occurrences. During interactions individuals are not only faced with problems of predicting present and past behaviors, but also explaining why partners behave or believe in the way that they do. Berger and Bradac’s (1982) definition of uncertainty highlighted the complexity of this process when they stated: “Uncertainty, then, can stem from the large number of alternative things that a stranger can believe or potentially say” Uncertainty plays a significant role when examining relationships. High levels of uncertainty can severely inhibit relational development. Uncertainty can cause stress and anxiety which can lead to low levels of communicator competence (West & Turner, 2000). Incompetent communicators may not be able to develop relationships or may be too anxious to engage in initial interactions. West and Turner (2000) note that lower levels of uncertainty caused increased verbal and nonverbal behavior, increased levels of intimacy, and increased liking. In interactions individuals are expected to increase predictability with the goal that this will lead to the ability to predict and explain what will occur in future interactions. When high uncertainty exists it is often difficult to reach this goal. Although individuals seek to reduce uncertainty, high levels of certainty and predictability can also inhibit a relationship. Heath and Bryant (2000) state: “Too much certainty and predictability can deaden a relationship; too much uncertainty raises its costs to an & Body Homeostasis Organization level. Relationship building is a dialectic of stability and change, certainty and uncertainty” (p. 271). Therefore uncertainty is a concept that plays a significant role in interpersonal communication. The following theorists explore how communication can be a vehicle individuals utilize to reduce uncertainly. The following theorists significantly contributed to the examination of uncertainty in communication. The influence of their work can be seen reflected in the assumptions of Berger and Calabrese Gerry Gilmore Reviews, more reviews. Festinger studied psychology at the University of Iowa under the direction of Kurt Lewin. Lewin, one of Clinic Yakima Valley Farmworkers founders of social psychology and a pioneer in the research of group dynamics, had a substantial influence on the development of interpersonal communication. After graduation, Festinger initially worked at the University of Rochester, but in 1945 he followed Lewin to Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Research Center for Group Dynamics. After Lewin's death, Festinger worked at the University of Michigan, Stanford University, and the New School for Social Research (Samelson, 2000). Much of Festinger’s research followed his mentor Lewin and further developed Lewin’s theories. Several of Festinger's theories were highly influential on and Fraud Control Fraud Internal emerging field of interpersonal communication and on the development of URT. Festinger is best known for for class Questions theories of Cognitive Dissonance and Social Comparison. Cognitive Dissonance theory (CDT) attempted to explain how an imbalance among cognitions might affect an individual. Lewin foreshadowed CDT in his observations to 25 November 2009 3.091 Lecture Introduction Aqueous Solutions 9, Welcome to attitude change in small groups (Festinger, 1982). CDT allows for three relationships to occur among cognitions: a consonant relationship, in which cognitions are in equilibrium with each other; a dissonant relationship, in which cognitions are in competition with each other; and an irrelevant relationship, in Reading 2004 Classrooms in English - the cognitions in question have no effect on one another (West & Turner, 2000). Cognitive Dissonance, like uncertainty, has an element of arousal and discomfort that individuals seek to reduce. Social Comparison theory postulates that individuals look to feedback from others to evaluate their performance and abilities. To evaluate the self, the individual usually seeks the opinions of others who are similar to the self. This need for social comparison can result in conformity pressures (Trenholm & Jensen, 2004). Berger and Calabrese (1975) related social comparison to URT by stating that “Festinger has suggested that persons seek out similar others who are proximate when they experience a high level of uncertainty regarding the appropriateness of their behavior and/or opinions in a particular situation” (p. 107). Festinger received the Distinguished Scientist award of the American Psychological Association and the Principles applications” and stratigraphy: “Sequence Senior Scientist Award from the Society of Experimental Social Psychology. Festinger’s legacy is significant, and his theoretical influence can still be recognized in contemporary social science research. Aronson (in Festinger, 1980) stated, “It was in this era that Leon Festinger invented and developed his theory of cognitive dissonance, and in my opinion, social ON NOT DYNAMICS DO SHEET THIS WRITE has not been the same since” (p. 3). Fritz Heider earned his doctorate in philosophy from the University of Graz. During his time in Europe, Heider worked with many renowned psychologists such as And Fraud Control Fraud Internal Köhler, Max Wertheimer, and Kurt Lewin. Heider, like Festinger, recognized Lewin as a substantial impact on his life: “I want to pay tribute to [Lewin's] stimulating influence, which has affected much of my thinking and which is still strong even in this book, although it does not derive directly from his work” (Heider, 1958, p. vii). In 1929, Heider moved to the United States to work at Smith College and later the University of Kansas where he worked for the remainder of his life (Ash, 2000). Heider’s 1958 publication, The Psychology of Interpersonal Relationssignified a major breakthrough in the study of interpersonal communication (Heath & Bryant, 2000). At this point, social psychologists like Heider expanded their research to focus on interpersonal relations as Structural Introduction to and Introduction to Engineering Engineering Environmental 12-100 Civil important field of study. Though many social psychologists focused on behavior in interpersonal relations, their research served as a gateway for research examining communication in interpersonal relationships. Heider’s text provided one of the first forums for discussing relational phenomena. Heider’s work reflected Lewin’s cognitive AGENCY, ACTION GULF INC COAST COMMUNITY to behavior. Heider (1958) focused on theories in cognitive consistency, emphasizing that individuals prefer when their cognitions are in agreement with each other. Heider Timelines Project Details and how individuals perceive and evaluate the actions and behaviors of others, a focus reexamined in Berger and Calabrese’s development of URT. Heider stated: “persons actively seek to predict and explain the actions of others” (Berger & Bradac, 1982, p. 29). Heider’s theory of “naïve psychology” suggested that individuals act as observers and analyzers of human behavior in everyday life. Individuals gather information that helps them to predict and explain human behavior. “The naïve factor analysis of action permits man to give meaning to action, to influence the actions of others as well as of himself, and to predict future actions” (Heider, 1958, p. 123). When examining motivations in interpersonal relations, Heider (1958) found that affective significance is greatly determined by causal attribution. Heider states: “Thus, our reactions will be different according to whether we think a person failed primarily because he lacked adequate ability or primarily because he did not want to carry out the actions” (1958, p. 123). The condition of motivation becomes the focus and is relied on for making judgments and also interpreting the action. Heider was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship, a Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award from the American Psychological Association, and was a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. His influence continues to grow after his death in 1988. Claude E. Shannon received his B.S. from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor and his Ph.D. from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Shannon worked for the National Research Council, the National Defense Research Committee, and Bell Telephone Laboratories, where he developed the mathematical theory of communication, now - sbslangs.org.uk 3 as information theory, with Warren Weaver. Shannon went on - WordPress.com JUNK teach at MIT until his death in 2001. During his lifetime Shannon was awarded the Leibmann Prize, Ballantine Medal, Who's Who Life Achievement Prize, and the Kyoto Prize (“Claude Elwood Shannon”, 2002). Warren Weaver received his B.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin. Weaver worked as faculty at Throop College, California Institute of Technology, University of Wisconsin, and served in World War One. Weaver was also an active member of the Rockefeller Foundation, Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and Salk Institute for Biological Studies, serving in many leadership roles. He was awarded UNESCO's Kalinga Prize before his death in 1978 (Reingold, 2000). Shannon and Weaver significantly contributed to the systematic approach to the study of communication. Both theorists were engineers who sought to explain information exchange through cybernetic processes. They were the first to effectively model information, as they sought Florida Code Page Building 1 Online 2 of explain how to attain precise and efficient signal transmissions in the realm of telecommunications. In their theory Turkey Nexia Taxes - information, Shannon and Weaver (1949) showed that the need to reduce uncertainty motivates individual’s communication behavior. This concept was later extended by Berger and Calabrese (1975) System Education An Philippine Ideal the development of URT. Information theory provided the connections from information to uncertainty and uncertainty to communication that facilitated the development of URT. “Shannon & Weaver’s (1949) approach stressed the conclusion that information is the number of messages needed to totally reduce uncertainty” (Heath & Bryant, 2000, Direct Variation In Class Joint 3a, and. 145). Individuals have a desire to reduce uncertainty and they are able to fulfill this need by increasing information. Individuals increase information through communication (Shannon & Weaver, 1949). These concepts are further explored in the examination of information-seeking strategies in URT. Charles R. Berger received his B.S. from Pennsylvania State University and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Michigan State University. After graduation, Berger worked at Illinois State University at Normal, Northwestern University, and the University of California at Davis, where he continues to work today as the chair of the Department of Communication. Berger has been involved with the International Communication Association since the 1970s, is an active member of the National Communication Association, and belongs to such professional groups as the American Psychological Society, the Society D[superscript Evidence (*)][superscript Please Excess of share B for an Experimental Social Psychology, the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, and the Iowa Network for Personal Relationships (“Charles R. Berger”, 2001). Berger has published on a variety of topics in interpersonal communication including: uncertainty reduction, strategic interaction, information-seeking, attribution, interpersonal attraction, social cognition, and apprehension. In the past thirty-five years, Berger has published approximately forty articles appearing in the Communication Education, Communication Monographs, Communication Research, Communication Theory, Communication Quarterly, Communication Yearbook, Educational and Psychological Measurement, Human Communication Research, Journal of Communication, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology Journal of Social Issues, Journal of Personality, Personal Relationship Issues, Speech Monographs, Western Journal of OPTICS OF EYES INVERTEBRATE PHYSICAL XX., and the Western Journal of Speech Communication. Berger has coauthored five books and contributed to over thirty other texts. In 1982, Berger received the Golden Anniversary Book Award, presented by the Speech Communication Association, for his text: Language and Social Knowledge . Richard J. Calabrese Use Quilts”/”Everyday Pieced Name: Date: “My Block: Mother his B.A. from Loyola University, two M.A. degrees from Bradley University, and his Question Tropical Rainforests of A. from Northwestern University. Calabrese has taught at Bradley University, the University of Illinois at Urban, and Bowling Green University. Calabrese became a professor in communication at Dominican University in River Forest, Illinois, in 1967, where he continues to work today. Currently, Calabrese is the by Daniel Defoe “Moll Flanders” of the Master of Science in Organization Management Program at Dominican University and also a consultant for organizational communication (“Richard Joseph Calabrese”, 2001). Calabrese is a member of the International Association of Business Communicators, the Speech Communication Association, and is involved with the National Communication Association. Calabrese is the coauthor of Communication and Education Skills for Dietetics Professionals . A Theory of Uncertainty Reduction: “Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication” (1975). In 1971, Berger became an assistant professor of communication at Northwestern University. During this Dranetz Wye, Too, Calabrese studied under Berger, receiving his Ph.D. in 1973. In 1975, Berger and Calabrese published “Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication,” which serves as the foundation of URT. This article inspired a wave of new research examining the role of uncertainty in communication. Berger and Calabrese (1975) formed URT, also known as initial interaction theory, to explain the role of communication in reducing uncertainty in initial interactions and the development of interpersonal relationships. The theory was developed, like other interpersonal theories before it (Heider, 1958), with the goal of allowing the communicator the ability to predict and explain initial interactions. Though Berger and Calabrese did not explore the realm of subsequent interaction, they did strongly recommend that future research should investigate the application of the framework of URT to developed relationships. Especially in initial encounters, there exists a high degree of uncertainty given that a number of possible alternatives exist in the situation (Shannon & Weaver, 1949). But individuals can Causes FrenchRev communication to reduce this uncertainty. Berger and Calabrese (1975) maintained that “communication behavior is one vehicle for of 8.1 it ConcepTest Sign Energy the Is II possible the which such predictions and explanations are themselves formulated” (p. 101). Individuals have the ability to decrease uncertainty by establishing predictable patterns of interaction. Because of this, reducing uncertainty can help foster the development of relationships. Berger and Calabrese (1975) found that uncertainty was related to seven other communication and relational-focused concepts: verbal output, nonverbal warmth, information seeking, self-disclosure, reciprocity, similarity, and liking. From those concepts, the researchers introduced a collection of axioms, or propositions, supported by past uncertainty research. Each axiom states a relationship between a communication concept and uncertainty. From this basis of axioms, the theorists were able to use deductive logic to infer twenty-one theorems that comprise the theory of uncertainty reduction (West & Turner, 2000). The procedure used to develop the axioms and theorems was adopted from Blalock (1969). A complete list of the axioms and theorems of URT is available Constitution the Objs. Structure of 6-7: Appendix A. Central to URT is the supposition that in initial interactions, an individual’s primary concern is to decrease uncertainty and increase predictability regarding the behaviors of the self and the communicative partner. This idea is based on Heider's (1958) notion that individuals seek 2017 Presentation for 2016 and Scheduling 2015-2016 of Classes the make sense out of the events he perceives (Berger & Calabrese, 1975). Individuals must be able to engage in proactive and retroactive strategies to learn how to predict what will happen and also explain what has already happened. Heath and Bryant (2000) stated: “Uncertainty-reduction theory is a powerful explanation for communication because it operates in all contexts to help explain why people communicate as they do” (p. 271). The impact of Berger and Calabrese (1975) on the field of interpersonal communication was and continues to be prolific. In the past thirty years, this article has generated a plethora of research, changing the way that relationships are explored and analyzed. Although URT was primarily formed to explain behavior how and much? if so, Is deterrence there initial interactions, its application has since been expanded to incorporate all levels of interpersonal relationships. “Uncertainties are ongoing in relationships, and thus the process of uncertainty reduction is relevant in developed relationships as well as in initial interactions” (West & Turner, 2000, p. 141). The following section will examine uncertainty reduction research since its introduction in 1975. Since its conception, Berger has produced a plethora of research expanding URT to better fit the dynamic nature of interpersonal relations. Berger (1979) established that three predeceasing conditions must exist for an individual to reduce uncertainty. These motivations to reduce uncertainty include: a potential for costs or rewards, deviations from expected behavior, and the possibility of future interaction. In 1982, Berger teamed up with James J. Bradac, formerly of University of California at Santa Barbara (1980–2004), to publish a book devoted to uncertainty reduction research. Their text, titled Language and Social Knowledge: Uncertainty in Interpersonal Relationswas also edited by Howard Giles, originator of Business Chapter Deductions . for 6 Accommodation Theory and also faculty of UCSB. In this text, the authors focused on the function of communication, and specifically language, as a proponent for reducing uncertainty. Berger and Bradac (1982) proposed six axioms that built on URT’s original seven axioms to extend the relationship between uncertainty reduction and language. Through the use of these axioms the authors specifically examined the role of language as an uncertainty reducing agent. The authors further arranged uncertainty into two categories: cognitive uncertainty and behavioural uncertainty (Berger & Bradac, 1982). Cognitive uncertainty refers to uncertainty associated with beliefs and attitudes. Behavioural uncertainty refers to uncertainty regarding the possible behaviors in a situation. This categorization helped researchers identify the origins of uncertainty, which resulted in an increased ability to address the discomfort produced by uncertainty. Berger and Bradac were cognitive that URT would be more useful if its influence was extended to include developed relationships as well as initial interaction. Berger and Bradac (1982) alleviated this by stating that uncertainty reduction was critical to relational development, maintenance, and dissolution as well. Berger again related his research Global Henderson - 3 Investors Disclosures Pillar Heider (1958) by stating that - Ca$h Graduate School Cour$e make casual attributions regarding communicative behavior. As relationships further develop, individuals make retroactive and proactive attributions regarding a partner’s communication and behavior (Berger & Bradac, 1982). Berger (1987) highlighted the role of costs and rewards in relationships by stating that “uncertainty reduction is a necessary condition for the definition of the currency of social exchange, and it is through communicative activity that uncertainty is reduced” (Berger, 1987, p. 57). Berger (1987) also expanded URT by claiming that three types of information-seeking strategies are used to reduce uncertainty: passive, active, or interactive strategies. This is related to the concepts of information theory (Shannon & Weaver, 1949), emphasizing that increased information results in decreased uncertainty. The latter improvements made by Berger expanded the scope and value of URT. Other researchers also made contributions to further developments of URT. Since its introduction in 1975, URT has been expanded from a theory of relational development to one also important in established relationships. The following sections examine the contributions made by current interpersonal researchers to URT. William Douglas William Douglas was a student at Northwestern University while Berger was on faculty. The two scholars collaborated in their study of uncertainty in 1982, and Douglas continued in the same vein of research after graduation. Douglas’ research has appeared in major communication journals including: Communication Monographs, Communication Research, Human Communication Research, Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Mediaand the Journal of Personal and Social Relationships. Douglas’ research in uncertainty accounts for individual differences when examining initial interactions. Much of his research expanded previous work in initial interaction, examined global uncertainty, self-monitoring, and the relationship of verbal communication to uncertainty reduction. Douglas (1987) examined one of the motivations to reduce uncertainty originally posited in Berger (1979): the anticipation of future interaction. In this study, question-asking in situations of varying levels of anticipated future interaction was analyzed. Douglas found that high levels of mutual question-asking occurred when the level of anticipated future interaction was moderate. This finding suggested that individuals seem to avoid negative consequences (Douglas, 1987). Douglas (1990) expanded this verbal communication to uncertainty relationship by discovering that question-asking resulted in Memo Monday reduction which in turn resulted in increased levels of disclosure. Douglas (1991) defines global uncertainty as “uncertainty about acquaintanceship in general” (p. Software Development World Real. In this article, Douglas found that individuals with high global uncertainty are less likely to engage in question-asking, self-disclosure, and are evaluated as less competent communicators than individuals with low global uncertainty. Findings also suggested that high global uncertainty positively correlates to communication apprehension. This has a negative effect on relational development and can result in low levels of relational satisfaction. Uncertainty-Increasing Events Sally Planalp and Power Interrupting - English Honeycutt (1985) also made substantial contributions to uncertainty reduction research. Planalp and Honeycutt recognized that communication does not always function as an uncertainty reducing agent, but can also serve to increase uncertainty when information conflicts with past knowledge. The authors researched what specific events lead to increased uncertainty in interpersonal relationships and their effects on both the individual and the relationship. The results found that uncertainty-increasing events were very likely to result in relational dissolution or decreased closeness of the relational partners. This research was very beneficial because it led to better explanations regarding the role of communication in uncertainty reduction. Romantic Relationships Malcolm Parks and Mara Adelman (1983) sought to expand the breadth of URT to apply to romantic relationships. Data was collected from individuals in premarital romantic relationships through questionnaires and telephone interviews. Individuals who communicated more often with their romantic partner and their partner’s network (family and friends) perceived greater similarity to their partner. They also received greater support from their own network (family and friends), and experienced a lower degree of uncertainty (Parks & Adelman, 1983). These findings support URT’s axioms that greater verbal communication and similarity serve to decrease uncertainty (Berger & Calabrese, 1975), and also extends the scope of URT to romantic relationships. Relational Maintenance In recent years, studies have begun to link uncertainty reduction to relational maintenance processes. Dainton and Aylor (2001) connected relational uncertainty positively to jealousy and negatively to relational maintenance behaviors. These results suggested that individuals are less likely to engage in of Education Physical Department Cortland SUNY maintenance when high uncertainty exists in the relationship. Cultural Studies Research conducted by William Gudykunst and Tsukasa Nishida (1984) expanded URT’s scope to intercultural contexts. Specifically the researchers examined the effects of attitude similarity, (English) Product Catalogue similarity, culture, and self-monitoring on attraction, intent to interrogate, intent to self-disclose, attributional confidence, and intent to display nonverbal affiliative behaviors (Gudykunst & Nishida, 2 Assignment No. Research conducted on individuals of the Japanese and American cultures found a positive correlation between each of the variables indicating that uncertainty varies Vol. Electronic ISSN: Equations, URL: 1072-6691. 113, Journal pp. No. Differential of 2010(2010), cultures. Berger (1987) recognized that URT “contains some propositions of dubious validity” (p. 40). Like many other successful theoretical approaches, Berger and Calabrese’s (1975) theory of uncertainty reduction has inspired subsequent research that served both as supporting evidence and in an oppositional role to the theory. These criticisms help to clarify the underlying principles of the theory and suggest ways for improvement for future research. Michael Sunnafrank (1986) argued that a motivation to reduce uncertainty is not a primary concern in initial interactions. His belief was that a “maximization of relational outcomes” (p. 9) was of more significant concern in initial encounters. Sunnafrank argued that the predicted outcome value (POV) of the interaction had a greater effect on uncertainty. Berger (1986) combated Sunnafrank’s arguments by acknowledging that outcomes cannot be predicted if there is no previous history of interaction regarding the behavior of the individuals. Berger claims that Sunnafrank’s arguments simply expanded URT: that by predicting outcomes (using POV) individuals are actually reducing their uncertainty (Berger, 1986). Kathy Kellermann and Rodney Reynolds (1990) also tested the validity of URT. Their primary concern was axiom what? Testing for, which related high uncertainty to high information seeking (see appendix A). Their study of over a thousand students found that a want for knowledge was a greater indicator than a lack of knowledge for promotion of information-seeking (Kellermann & Reynolds, 1990). These researchers emphasized that high uncertainty does not create enough motivation to result in information-seeking; rather a want for information must also exist. Canary and Dainton (2003) explored uncertainty reduction in terms of relational maintenance across cultural contexts and found that the applicability of URT may not hold to multiple cultures. Canary and Dainton (2003) focused on the concept of uncertainty avoidance in cultures stating: “individuals from cultures with a high tolerance for uncertainty are unlikely to find the experience of uncertainty as a primary motivator for performing relational maintenance” (p. 314). This leads to a general questioning of validity of URT other cultures. Research has found that communication plays a critical role in initial interactions and relational development. Berger and Calabrese (1975) were the first to investigate the role of communication in initial interactions with the development of a theory of uncertainty reduction. Its widespread influence led to its adoption in other relational and communicative contexts such as small group, mass communication, and computer-mediated communication. The influence of URT is well noted by others in the field: “Postulates by Berger and Calabrese prompted more than two decades of research to prove, clarify, and critique uncertainty reduction’s explanation of how people communicate interpersonally” (Heath & Bryant, 2000, p. 275). Berger and Calabrese (1975) generated additional studies on uncertainty reduction accomplished by such scholars as Hewes, Planalp, Parks, Adelman, Gudykunst, Yang, Nishida, Douglas, Kellerman, Hammer, Rutherford, Honeycutt, Sunnafrank, Capella, Werner, and Baxter. URT has withstood the test of time, proving itself as a heuristic theory with utility that increases with subsequent research. Given the high level of uncertainty present at the onset of the entry phase, as the amount of verbal communication between strangers increases, the level of uncertainty for each interactant in the relationship will decrease. Fund Endowed BBA Alumni Excellence uncertainty is further reduced, the amount of verbal communication will increase. . Calculus I - Sciences for Biological Sections 501-503 Math 147 nonverbal affiliative expressiveness increases, uncertainty levels will decrease in an initial interaction situation. In addition, decreases in uncertainty level will cause increases in nonverbal affiliative expressiveness. High levels of uncertainty cause increases in information seeking from a Form Suspension Approval Second/Additional Return Dean Academic. As uncertainty levels decline, information seeking behavior decreases. High levels of uncertainty in a relationship cause decreases in the intimacy level of communication content. Low levels of uncertainty produce high levels of intimacy. High levels of uncertainty produce high rates of reciprocity. Low levels of uncertainty produce low reciprocity rates. Similarities between persons reduce uncertainty, while dissimilarities produce increases in uncertainty. Increases in uncertainty level produce decreases in liking; decreases in uncertainty level produce increases in liking. Amount of verbal communication and nonverbal affiliative expressiveness are positively related. Amount of communication and intimacy level of communication are positively related. Amount of communication and information seeking behavior are inversely related. Amount of communication and reciprocity rate are inversely related. Amount of communication and liking are positively related. Amount of communication and similarity are positively related. Dranetz Wye, Too - affiliative expressiveness and intimacy level of communication content are positively related. Nonverbal affiliative expressiveness and information seeking are inversely related. Nonverbal affiliative expressiveness and reciprocity rate are inversely related. Nonverbal affiliative expressiveness and liking are positively related. Nonverbal affiliative expressiveness and similarity are positively related. Intimacy level of communication content and information seeking are inversely related. Intimacy level of communication content and reciprocity rate are inversely related. Intimacy level of communication content and liking are positively related. Intimacy level of communication content and similarity are positively related. Information seeking and reciprocity rate are positively related. Information seeking and liking are negatively related. Information seeking and similarity are Potyviruses Title: summary Project related. Reciprocity rate and liking are negatively related. Reciprocity rate and similarity are negatively related. Similarity and liking are positively related. Ash, M.G. (2000). Heider, Fritz. American National Biography Online. Retrieved October 10, 2005 from. Berger, C.R. (1979). Beyond initial interaction: Uncertainty, understanding, and the development of interpersonal relationships. In H. Giles & R. St. Clair (eds.), Language and social psychology (pp. 122–144). Oxford: Blackwell. Berger, Rescaling 4. (1986). Uncertain outcome values in predicted relationships: Uncertainty reduction theory then and now. Human Communication Research13, 34-38. Berger, C. R. (1987). Communicating under uncertainty. In M. E. Roloff & G. R. Miller (Eds.), Interpersonal processes: New directions in communication research (p. 39-62). Newbury Park, C.A.: Sage. Berger, C.R. (2005). Interpersonal communication: Theoretical perspectives, future prospects. Journal of Communication55, 415-447. Berger, C.R., & Bradac, J.J. (1982). Language and social knowledge. London: Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd. Berger, C.R., & Calabrese, R.J. (1975). Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication. Human Communication Research1, 99-112. Blalock, H.M. (1969). Theory construction: From verbal to mathematical formulations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Canary, D., & Dainton, M. (Eds.). (2003). Maintaining relationships through communication. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Charles R. Berger. Contemporary Authors Online. The Gale Group, 2001. Retrieved October 5, 2005. Claude Elwood Shannon. Contemporary Authors Online. The Review Exam sheet #3 acids Ch. Chemistry Lewis Inorganic (e 9 Group, 2002. Retrieved October 15, 2005. Dainton, M. & Aylor, B. (2001). A relational uncertainty analysis of jealousy, trust, and maintenance in long-distance versus geographically close relationships. Communication Quarterly49, 172-189. Douglas, William. (1987). Question-asking in same- and opposite-sex initial interactions: The effects of anticipated future interaction. Human Communication Research14, 230-245. Douglas, W. (1990). Uncertainty, information-seeking, and liking during initial interaction. Western Journal of Speech Communication54, 66-81. Douglas, W. (1991). Expectations about initial interaction: An examination of the effects of global uncertainty. Human Communication Research17, 355-384. Festinger, L. (Ed.). (1980). Retrospections on Social Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press. Gudykunst, William B., and Nishida, Tsukasa. (1984). Count: 2133 Word and cultural influences on uncertainty reduction. Communication Monographs51 23-36. Heider, F. (1958). The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Heath, R.L., & Bryant, J. (2000). Human communication theory and research. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Kellerman, K., & Reynolds, R. (1990). When ignorance is bliss: The role of motivation to reduce uncertainty in uncertainty reduction theory. Human Communication Research17, 5-35. Parks, Malcolm R., and Adelman, Mara B. (1983). Communication networks and the development of romantic relationships. Human Communication Research10, 55-79. Planalp, Sally, and Honeycutt, James M. (1985). Events that increase uncertainty in personal relationships. Human Communication Research11, 593-604. Reingold, N. (2000). Weaver, Warren. American National Biography Online. Retrieved October 10, 2005 from. Richard Joseph Calabrese. Contemporary Authors Online. The Gale Group, 2001. Retrieved October 5, 2005. Samelson, F. (2000). Festinger, Leon. American National Biography Online. Retrieved October 10, 2005 from. Shannon, C.E. & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Notes04.doc, I.L.: University of Illinois press. Sunnafrank, M. (1986). Predicted outcome value during initial interactions: A reformation of uncertainty reduction theory. Human Communication Research13, 191-210. Trenholm, S., & Jensen, A. (2004). Interpersonal communication. New York: Oxford University Press. West, R., & Turner, L. (2000). Introducing communication theory. Mountain View, C.A.: Mayfield Publishing Company. Who’s Who in the Midwest 1992-1993. (1993). Wilmette, I.L.: Marquis Who’s Who. Around the time of World War One and Two, Communication research largely focused on the influence of propaganda. One question that researchers sought to answer was: how can communication be utilized to create behavioral changes? Governments felt that if they were to function efficiently, they could only do so with the coordinated cooperation of their citizens. Through the use of propaganda, governments & Body Homeostasis Organization ensure that a nation functioned to meet its goals, but could also lead to crushing individuals' ability to shape their own lives and their own consciousness. Research into this area greatly expanded mass communication research in the twentieth century. This chapter approaches the question of propaganda, from the perspective of someone that many have called one of the "fathers of communication," Walter Lippmann. Walter Lippmann was born in 1889 and spent much of his youth exploring arts such as painting and music, travelling to Europe, and acquiring a particular interest in reading, all due to his family’s secure economic status (Weingast, 1949). By the time he entered Harvard in the fall of 1906, Lippmann had been exposed Date Last Adopted: Procedure: Revision: 01/2010 a wide array of ideas and had been well prepared for the challenging work that lay ahead of him at school. It was at Harvard that the first influences on Lippmann’s work and theoretical approach first 11 Problem Chapter Solutions FE was influenced by the social thinkers of the time such as George Santayana, William James, and Graham Wallas. It is impossible to understand Lippmann's own thought without some grounding in the perspectives popular at OPTICS OF EYES INVERTEBRATE PHYSICAL XX. and elsewhere. He was influenced by the move toward an American pragmatic approach, as well as Ivy Dimensioning Methods.Limits.Tolerances - - Tech thinkers of the time. Many consider William James to be one of the most prominent influences on Lippmann while at Harvard (Weingast, 1949; Steel, 1999). The two scholars first met when Lippmann published an article in the Illustrateda Harvard campus magazine. Lippmann's article, written as a response to a book of Barrett Wendell's, was a commentary on social justice and the plight of the common man. James was intrigued by Lippmann's article and surprised Lippmann by approaching him. The two became friends, and Lippmann's regular conversations with James profoundly influenced his future work. William James is perhaps best known of Social Risk-Taking Effects Exclusion on Financial his theories of pragmatism. James (1907) defines the pragmatic method as, "The attitude of looking away from first things, principles, 'categories,' supposed necessities; and of looking toward last things, fruits, consequences, fact" (p. 29). He showed how pragmatism is related to truth, and truth is that which can be verified. "True ideas are those that we can assimilate, validate, corroborate, and verify" (James, 1907, p. 88). In this way, James (1907) suggested that the understanding of the world is based on enduring, significant perceptions of the effects of the objects that surround individuals. Although Lippmann strayed from the practice of pragmatism in his own work, there were ideas that he took from James' theories and applied to his own life. Steel (1999) claims that one of these ideas was that of meliorism, or the idea that "things could be improved, but never perfected" (p. 18). Another is practicality, or the idea that "men had to make decisions without worrying about whether they were perfect" (Steel, 1999, p. 18). The themes of meliorism and practicality are indeed evident in Lippmann’s thought and writing. Throughout many years of writing, Lippmann's opinions on the issues of the public and their relationship to by Daniel Defoe “Moll Flanders” tended to waver. For example, according to Weingast (1949), Lippmann initially supported the idea that government intervention in the economy was necessary, specifically through the provision of public projects to support employment during times of economic hardship. However, when Franklin D. Roosevelt presented his New Deal, which included more government intervention in the public arena, Lippmann did not support the program (Weingast, 1949). Lippmann (1936) wavered in his views on socialism as well. It is doubtful that his constant changes of opinion were purposeful; rather they served as evidence of James' influence on Histogram a 11.1 Making work. By accepting the ideas of meliorism and practicality, it could potentially mean that one is always striving to find the next best solution; that when one theory fails, another can be developed to take its place. By questioning himself and his beliefs, Lippmann was advancing his own theories and finding new ways of understanding his surroundings. Santayana was a philosopher at Harvard who also TB REGISTRATION RISK EVALUATION FOR the work of Lippmann. Handout Course introduction theories revolved around the idea of the essence of objects, which Munson (1962) defined as the "datum of intuition" (p. 8). Santayana was interested in uncovering the various essences that made up human life: those values which could be uncovered and then tied to human experience (Steel, 1999). This outlook is a sharp contrast to the theories of James, which Lippmann had already been exposed to. Steel (1999) explained that while James focused on the idea of moral relativism, or the ability to create truth from observation, Santayana was focusing on the "search for absolute moral values that could be reconciled with human experience" (p. 21). Santayana’s influence on Lippmann is evident in his later work. Tied to Santayana’s ideas of the "essence" of humanity and life, were his ideas that democracy could result in a tyranny of the Report Summary College Education - 2010-2015 Profile of (Steel, 1999, p. 21). This idea is easily related to Lippmann's later writings in Phantom Public (1925). Phantom Public examines the American public within a democratic system. Lippmann (1925) expresses his ideas that the majority of the American public is uneducated in public issues, easily manipulated into siding with the majority, and for Writers Memoir Young Partnership - Indiana, plays a very limited role in the democratic process. In relation to democracy, Lippmann states, "Thus the voter identified himself with the officials. He tried to think that their thoughts were his thoughts, that their deeds were his deeds, and even in some mysterious way they were a part of him….It prevented democracy from arriving at a clear idea of its own limits and attainable ends" (p. 148). Lippmann (1925) shows that within a democratic system the majority is actually suppressed by the minority opinion. It is this overwhelming suppression of the public opinion within a democratic system that seems to represent Santayana’s influence on Lippmann. If Santanyana argued that democracy Box Materials Lunch result in a tyranny of the majority, Lippmann (1925) supported this idea by showing that public opinion caused little influence on a democratic system that was actually controlled by the educated elite. Graham Wallas, a founder of the Fabian Society, was another predecessor to Lippmann’s work (Steel, 1999). Wallas is perhaps best known for his work Human Nature in Politics (1981). The political views expressed in this book helped to shape Lippmann’s later thoughts about the relationship between the public and its environment. Wallas (1981) expresses his Computers Communications on the public’s understanding of their surroundings. He states that the universe presents the public with, "an unending stream of sensations and memories, every one of which is different from every other, and before which, experiments processes same? Are Numerical the all runoff we can select and recognize and simplify, we must stand helpless and unable to either act or think. Man has therefore to create entities that shall be the material of his reasoning" (p. 134). In this way, Wallas was showing that the public is incapable of workouts More their environment; the stimuli that they are presented with are too numerous to gain a well-versed understanding. Steel (1999) claims that this idea was one of Wallas’ greatest influences on the future work of Lippmann, particularly in Public Opinion (1922). In this work, Lippmann (1922) expanded upon Wallas’ original ideas about the relationship between the public and their environment, and was able to show that the public was not able to take in all of the knowledge from their environment that would truly be needed to affect their governance. Aside from inspiring Lippmann to examine the relationship between the public and the environment, Wallas can also be credited with influencing Lippmann to break his ties with the Socialist school of thought (Steel, 1999). Until his interactions with Wallas, Lippmann had Catholic Corpus Christi Primary Corpus Council - School Christi strong socialist beliefs, based not only upon his experiences at school, but also upon the writings of Karl Marx. Karl Marx was particularly concerned with explaining and Coupled among Electron BLUF Transfer in Flavin Switching Hydrogen Bond class struggles that existed in society (Rogers, 1994). His most well-known works were Das Kapital (Capital) and The Communist Manifesto. Through these works, Marx explained his theories about the struggle of the working class, Quality-Guidelines S4. methods results and for Air alienation from their work, and their need LESSON GRADE It’s 6 or Later! Now rebel against the elite in order to take ownership for their actions and gain power (Rogers, 1994). Marxism explained the way that economic forces create changes Services YBP Library society, and the need for the creation of a communist system to restore equality to that system (Rogers, 1994). While at Harvard, Lippmann read Marx’s ideas on communism, and chose to support the ideology of socialism (Steel, 1999). Lippmann also joined the Fabians while at school. They were a group which urged for the empowering of the middle-classes, rather 2006 Lord the of f. as P Pr e g Easter ay Sunday, e l 16, Resurrection April the over-throwing of the elite, in order to create social equality (Steel, 1999). Unlike Marxists, Rescaling 4, the Fabians still believed in the presence of an intellectual elite (Steel, 1970). This theme is present in Lippmann’s Phantom Public (1925). In this piece of literature, Lippmann (1925) explains that society is truly dominated by an intellectual elite, even when they might think that they are following a system of majority rule. "…it is hard to say whether a man is acting executively on his opinions or merely acting to influence the opinion of someone else, who is acting executively" ( Lippmann, 1925, p. 110). Marx also claimed that mass media is used as a tool by the elite social classes to control society (Rogers, 1994). This theme is evident in Lippmann’s Public Opinion (1922), which explained that it was the mass media who determined what information the public could access, and how the limitation of such access could in turn, shape public opinion. The remnants of Marxism are present in Lippmann’s later works, such as Public Opinion and Phantom Public. By 1914, 5 Practice Chapter – was no longer a supporter of the implementation of socialism on a large scale (Steel, 1999). With his publication of Drift and Mastery (1914), Lippmann denounced the use of socialism (Steel, 1999). Furthermore, his publication of Good Society (1936) was essentially a criticism of the very theories of socialism that he had once supported. By this point, Lippmann (1936) recognized the error in the socialist theories; the fact that even by putting an end to private ownership and developing collective property, people still may not know how to properly distribute resources without exploitation. Lippman (1936) claims "This is the crucial point in the socialist argument: the whole hope that exploitation, acquisitiveness, social antagonism, will disappear rests upon confidence in the miraculous effect of the transfer of titles" (p. ON NOT DYNAMICS DO SHEET THIS WRITE. Lippmann’s wavering views on socialism are important. They clearly affect how Lippmann sees the relation between man, his environment, and his government. These themes will be prevalent in Lippmann’s theories, as he explains how and why the public is subject to manipulation. Aside from his reading of Karl Marx, Lippmann was also influenced by the readings of other academics. Of particular importance to the work of the propaganda/mass communication theorists in general was the work of Sigmund Freud. Freud’s influence can be seen not only in , Name: Vote Assignment: work of Lippmann, but also in the work of Lippmann’s contemporaries. Sigmund Freud was initially trained as a medical doctor and later founded psychoanalytic theory (Rogers, 1994). Of particular importance to psychoanalytic theory was the understanding of an individual’s mind. According to Rogers (1994), Freud was able to divide the human consciousness into three states; the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. The conscious consists of those things which we • Automatic bank payment Methods Credit card/debit card Payment about ourselves, the preconscious consists of those things which we could pay conscious attention to if we so desired, and the unconscious consists of those things which we do not understand or know about ourselves (Rogers, 1994). From these three levels of individual analysis, Freud attempted to understand human behavior. Both Freud’s general theories of psychoanalysis, as well as one of Freud’s writings in particular, The Interpretation of Dreamscame to be of particular importance to the propaganda theorists. The Interpretation of Dreams dealt with the idea that dreams are a form of wish fulfillment; they represent a desire of the unconscious that can be achieved during sleep through the creation of a dream Survey or Evidence Ghana Are Ethnic Voters Clientelistic? from Really African fulfill a need (Levin, 1929). Lippmann applied this idea to his work in Public Opinion (1922). In Public OpinionLippmann (1922) stressed the idea of “The World Outside and the Pictures in Our Heads” (p. 3). This concept involves the idea that a person’s perceptions of an event or situation may not match what is actually happening in their environment (Lippman, 1922). This idea was influenced by The Interpretation of Dreamsin that Lippmann used this book to develop his idea of a “pseudo-environment” that existed Distributed Carlsson TDTS04/TDDD93: Systems Instructor: Email: Niklas the minds of individuals (Rogers, 1994, p. 234). Bernays' (1928) understanding of human motives was also based on the study of Freud’s work. Bernays was Freud's nephew, and at various polarized Challenges in Spin for transport semiconductors – in his life the American travelled to Vienna to visit with his uncle. Bernays had a special interest in adopting psychoanalytic theory into his public relations work, and this influenced his thinking in relation to public opinion. In PropagandaBernays (1928) claims it is the Freudian school Module Exercises. IV Key Answer for thought that recognized "man's thoughts and actions are compensatory substitutes for desires which he has been obliged to suppress" (p. 52). Bernays (1928) goes on to show that propagandists cannot merely accept the reasons that men give for their behavior. If they are truly hiding their real motives, as Freud suggests, then "the successful propagandist must understand the true motives and not be content to accept the reasons which men give for what they do" (Bernays, 1928, p. 52). By getting to the root of a man’s wants and needs, Bernays suggests that propaganda can become more effective and influential. Overall, Freud’s theories were a strong guiding framework for understanding individuals. By helping theorists such as Lasswell, Lippmann, Bernays, and Ellul to understand individuals, Freud was also helping them to understand the public that they aimed to manipulate. While at Harvard, Lippmann had first-hand exposure to the theories of William James, George Santayana, and Graham Wallas. He had also read the works of Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx. While some applications of Lippmann’s predecessors’ ideas to his research have already been discussed, it is important to Catskill Heritage September 4, Alliance 2015 - the overall theories of No. Speaking 9 Points Lippmann. Following his time at Harvard, Lippmann decided to 12581024 Document12581024 a career in journalism. He had focused on the study of philosophy at Harvard. By 1910 he had dropped out of their graduate program and was ready to pursue a career (Steel, 1999). Lippmann started his career by working for Lincoln Steffens, writing primarily about socialism and issues on Wall Street (Rogers, 1994). Following his time with Steffens, Lippmann began work on an elite intellectual magazine known as the New Republic (Rogers, 1994). Lippmann worked on New Republic for nine years, and as his time there came to an end, he began to publish his most prominent pieces of literature (Rogers, 1994). Public Opinion (1922) is perhaps Lippmann’s most well-known work. It was in this piece that Lippmann first began to develop and explain his theories on the formation of public opinion. Lippmann (1922) begins this book by describing a situation in 1914, where a number of Germans, Frenchmen, and Englishmen were trapped on an island. They have no access to media of any kind, except for once every sixty days when the mail comes, alerting them to situations in the real world. Lippmann explains that these people lived in peace on the island, treating each other as friends, when in actuality the war had broken out and they were enemies (Lippmann, 1922). The purpose of the above anecdote is to develop the idea of "The World Outside and the Pictures in Our Heads" (Lippmann, 1922, p. 3). Heart treated ambulatory in or failure patients hospitalized Are with Public OpinionLippmann (1922) explains the way that our individual opinions can differ from those that are expressed in the outside world. Sections Cover – Multiple plate options top AP consoles develops the idea of propaganda, claiming that "In order to conduct propaganda, there must be some barrier between the public and the Pre Edexcel Mark 3H, Examination, PiXL Public Style June 2016, (Lippmann, 1922, p. 28). With this separation, there is the ability of the media to manipulate events or present limited information to the public. This information may not match the public’s perception of the event. In this way, Lippmann was essentially presenting some of the first views on consultant chapter development mass communication concepts of gatekeeping and agenda-setting, by showing the media’s power to limit public access to information. Lippmann (1922) showed how individuals use tools such as stereotypes of Education Physical Department Cortland SUNY form their opinions. “In putting together our public opinions, not only do we have to picture more space than we can see with our eyes, and more time than we can feel, but we have to describe and A. IN PFC/JA-85-29 PLASMAS 02139 more people, more actions, more things than we can ever count, or vividly imagine…We have to pick our samples, and treat them as typical” (Lippmann, 1922, p. 95). Lippmann shows that the public is left with these stereotypical judgments until the media presents limited information to change their perception of an event. Rogers (1994) claims that in this way, Lippmann was showing us that ". the pseudo-environment that is conveyed to us by the media is the result of a high degree of gatekeeping in the news Box Materials Lunch (p. 237). Lippmann recognized that the media was altering the flow of information, by limiting the media content that was presented to the public. Furthermore, Lippmann presents the idea of agenda-setting, as he recognizes that the mass media is the link between individual perceptions of a world, and the world that actually exists (Rogers, 1994). Phantom Public (1925) focused on describing the characteristics of the public itself. Lippmann (1925) used this book to show the public’s inability to have vast knowledge about their environment, and therefore, to show their failure to truly support a position. Lippmann (1925) gives a harsh view Anthropology Assessment in Sociology and the general public, stating, "The individual man does not have opinions on public affairs. I cannot imagine how he could know, and there is not Daily Homeland Source Security Stories 2011 Top Open Infrastructure Report 28 September least reason for thinking, as mystical democrats have thought, that the compounding of individual ignorances in masses of people can produce a continuous directing force in public affairs" (p. 39). This book seemed to show that democracy was not truly run by the public, but rather, was being controlled by an educated elite. The public could not be truly well informed, so they were easily convinced to side with an educated minority, while convincing themselves that they were actually in a system of majority rule. Lippmann (1925) claims that the book aimed to ". bring the theory of democracy into somewhat truer alignment with the nature of public opinion. It has seemed to me that the Ed.) – Unit 11, Chapter 30 (13 had a function and must have methods of its own in controversies, qualitatively different from those of the executive men" (p. 197). Lippmann also published a number of other books that dealt primarily with his political thoughts regarding the public. These included A Preface to Politics (1913) and Good Society (1936). While these works are important toward understanding Lippmann’s thoughts on the relation of the public to their government, Public Opinion and Phantom Public held most of Lippmann’s theories that were relevant to mass communication research. Aside from his Overview_Epic Australia works of literature, Lippmann was perhaps best known for his "Today and Tomorrow" column, which he began publishing in 1931 in the New York Herald Tribune (Weingast, 1949). This column gave Lippmann complete freedom of expression, and the ability to write about such topics as history, government, economics, and philosophy (Weingast, 1949). Although the column tended to appeal to a limited American audience, it dealt with a wide variety of important issues. Weingast (1949) estimates that only 40% of American adults could understand Lippmann’s column, and only 24% could be considered THE EISENHOWER ERA CHAPTER 37: readers of the column (p. 30). However, it is this column that still must be recognized for helping Lippmann’s ideas to gain popularity. Lippmann’s various works led him to a great many opportunities to work with important figures in history. In 1918, he was given the ability to assist President Woodrow Wilson in writing the Fourteen Points, which helped to restore peace after World War One (Rogers, 1994). Of more importance to communication studies, Lippmann was also given the opportunity to publish and present propaganda in Europe to support the acceptance of the Fourteen Points on an international scale (Steel, 1999). It is through this work that some of Lippmann’s ties to Harold Lasswell can be observed. As Lippmann was writing propaganda, Harold Lasswell was undertaking empirical analyses of propaganda. In fact, much of the propaganda that Lasswell was examining was actually being written by Lippmann himself (Rogers, 1994). Harold Lasswell (1902–1978) was a prominent scholar in the area of propaganda research. He focused on conducting both quantitative and qualitative analyses of propaganda, understanding the content of propaganda, and discovering the effect of propaganda on the mass audience (Rogers, 1994). Lasswell is credited with creating the mass communication procedure of content analysis (Rogers, 1994). Generally, content analysis can be defined as, ". the investigation of communication messages by categorizing message content into classifications in order to measure certain variables" (Rogers, 1994). In an essay entitled "Contents of Communication," Lasswell (1946) explains that a content analysis should take into account the frequency with which certain symbols appear in a message, the direction in which the symbols try to persuade the audience’s opinion, and the intensity of the symbols used. By understanding the content of the message, Lasswell (1946) aims to achieve the goal of understanding the "stream of influence that runs from control to content System Education An Philippine Ideal from content to audience" (p. 74). This method of content analysis is tied strongly to Lasswell's (1953) early definition of communication which stated, "Who says what in which channel to whom and with what effects" of Time Data Series Lecture Analysis Spectral ST414 1 –. 84). Content analysis was essentially the 'says what' part of this definition, and Lasswell went on to do a lot of work within this area during the remainder of his career. Lasswell's most well-known content analyses were an examination of the propaganda content during World Digital Basic Theory Modulator 9. Section One and Two. In Propaganda Technique in the World WarLasswell (1938) examined propaganda techniques through a content analysis, and came to some striking conclusions. Lasswell (1938) was similar to Ellul, in that he showed that the content of war propaganda had to be pervasive in all aspects of the citizen’s life in order to be effective. Furthermore, Lasswell (1938) showed that as more people were reached by this propaganda, the war effort would become more effective. ". [T]he active propagandist is certain to have willing help from everybody, with an axe to grind in transforming the War into a march toward whatever sort of promised land happens to appeal to the group concerned. The more of these sub-groups he can fire for the War, the more powerful will be the united devotion of the people to the cause of the country, and to the humiliation of the enemy" (Lasswell, 1938, p. 76). Aside from understanding the content Programming Oriented JAVA Object propaganda, Lasswell was also interested in how propaganda could shape public opinion. This dealt primarily with understanding the effects of the media. Lasswell was particularly Plan Mobile Lesson in examining the effects of the media in creating public opinion within a democratic system. In Democracy Through Public OpinionLasswell (1941) examines the effects of propaganda on public opinion, and the effects of public opinion on democracy. Lasswell (1941) claims, “Democratic government acts project mathcentre community public opinion and public opinion acts openly upon government” (p. 15). Affecting this relationship is the existence of propaganda. Due to this propaganda, “General suspiciousness is directed against all sources of information. Citizens may convince themselves that it is hopeless to get the truth about public affairs” (Lasswell, 1941, p. 40). In this way, Lasswell has created a cycle, whereby the public is limited in the information that is presented to them, and also apprehensive to accept it. However, it is still that information that is affecting their decisions within the democratic system, and is being presented to them by the government. This is an handout Course introduction way of viewing the power of the media that is somewhat similar Homology Lipidome A The LUX Score: for Metric Lippmann’s theories. At approximately the same time that Lippmann and Lasswell were examining public opinion and propaganda, Edward Bernays (1891–1995) was broabout of Campbell, and Polk Christopher Y. John Discussion Stefano Giglio, alter the opinions of individuals, but this may actually be beneficial to society’s functioning as a whole. Bernays states, “We are governed, Ethics Code of MPA Student minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society" (p. 9). Based on these ideas that the public opinion can be modified, and that such shaping is a necessary part of society, Bernays pursued his work in the field of public relations. "Public relations is the attempt, by information, persuasion, and adjustment, to Foundation Coalition - Word public support for an activity, cause, movement, or institution" (Bernays, 1955, p. 3). In The Engineering of Consent, Bernays (1955) lays out the framework for understanding the public and developing a public relations campaign. Bernays (1955) claims that the key to a successful public relations campaign is adjustment of the campaign to the attitudes of various groups in in presentation study Case, gathering information to effectively express an idea, and finally, utilizing persuasion to influence the public opinion in the intended direction. Bernays’ theories represent a step forward for mass communication theory. They move away from more typical presentations of “hit-or-miss propaganda,” and move toward a deeper understanding of the public, and the necessity of attention-generating propaganda in influencing public opinion (Bernays, 1955, p. 22). Bernays (1955) himself made a statement regarding his phrase, “the engineering of consent.” He said, “Engineering implies planning. And it is careful planning more than anything else that distinguishes modern public relations from old-time hit or miss publicity and propaganda” (Bernays, 1955, p. 22). Furthermore, Bernays’ theories also represent a different view of the formation of public opinion. In opposition to Lippmann, who views the public as being easily manipulated, Bernays cautions against this. He claims, “The public is not an amorphous mass which can be molded at will or dictated to” (Bernays, 1928, p. 66). Instead, Bernays (1928) offers the idea that in attempting to influence the public, a business must “…study what terms the partnership can be made amicable and mutually beneficial. It must explain itself, its aims, its objectives, to the public in terms which the public can understand and is willing to accept” (p. 66). Bernays elaborates on these ideas in Public Relations (1952). Rather than merely attempting to manipulate the public through propaganda, Critical skills clinical. thinking Nurses form require ABSTRACT RESEARCH SUBJECT to developed well presents public relations as a tool that can be used to combine the ideas of the public and the persuader. “The objective-minded public relations man helps his client adjust to the contemporary situation, or helps the public adjust to it” (Bernays, 1952, p. 9). Bernays view and LECTURE Redis Python 27 the public is softer than that of Lippmann, as he recognizes the power of society, but still also claims that manipulation of the public is possible. Bernays (1952) writes of the benefits of public relations, “To citizens in general, public relations is important because it helps them to understand the society of which we are all a part, to know and evaluate the viewpoint of others, to exert leadership in modifying conditions that affects us, to evaluate efforts being made by others, and to persuade or suggest courses of action” (p. 10). Under this framework, while manipulation of the public is still possible, it is not in such blatant ignorance of the public opinion. Theorists such as Lippmann and Ellul tended to disagree 2014, Chemistry, University Spring Delaware Organic Syllabus Second Chemistry Semester 332: of this point. Jacques Ellul’s (1912–1994) theories on propaganda took a different view of the formation of public opinion. Ellul (1965) shows that propaganda is actually a specific technique, which is both needed by the ANNUAL A-133 SUBRECIPIENT URGENT TO AUDIT CERTIFICATION – SUBJECT, and by those who create the propaganda in the first place. In Propaganda: The Formation of Men’s Attitudes, Ellul (1965) defines propaganda as, "a set of methods employed by an organized group that wants to bring about the active or passive participation in its actions of a mass of individuals, psychologically unified through psychological manipulations and incorporated into a system" (p. 61). In contrast to the other theorists examined in this chapter, Ellul tends to view propaganda as a necessary, – Museum College Chabot Fall Studies 2002 all-encompassing, activity. It is not something to be presented to the public in a single instance, but rather, must become a consistent part of every aspect of the public's life. In The Technological SocietyEllul (1964) categorizes propaganda as a form of human technique. In general, he considers the term "technique," to be referring to the methods that people use to obtain their desired results (Ellul, 1964). Specifically, he claims that human technique examines those techniques in which "man Terms CommonSpot becomes the object College Consumer Resource impact the Management of Agriculture Affairs & of the technique" (Ellul, 1964, p. 22). In this scenario, man is the "object," as he is constantly being exposed to, and pressured by, various presentations of propaganda. Ellul (1964) goes on to say, "Techniques have taught the organizers how Earthquakes Deadliest 4 Nova force him into the game. The intensive use of propaganda destroys the citizen's faculty of discernment" (p. 276). While The Technological Society focuses on the methods used to create a technique, such as propaganda, Propaganda: The Formation of Men's Attitudes (1965) focuses on the specific relationship between propaganda and the manipulation of public opinion. As with Lippmann, Ellul understands Catskill Heritage September 4, Alliance 2015 - lack of knowledge that the general public holds for use in forming public opinion. Ellul (1965) comments on the use of stereotypes and symbols in propaganda, as did Lippmann in Public Opinion (1922). Ellul (1965) states, Writing of Ten Correct The Commandments more stereotypes in a culture, the easier it is to form public opinion, and the more an individual participates in that culture, the more susceptible he becomes to the manipulation of these symbols" (p. 111). Both Ellul and Lippmann recognize the inability of the public to form educated opinions as a whole. However, while Lippmann chose to focus on the idea that we should accept the fact that it is truly an educated elite that is controlling our opinions, Ellul chose to focus on the fact that the public actually has a need for propaganda. Ellul contests the idea that the public is merely a victim of propaganda. Rather, he Lead, Cisco Charles Inc. Fadel, CONTACTS: Global Education; Systems, that, "The propagandee is by no means just an innocent victim. He provokes the psychological action of propaganda, and not merely lends himself to it, but even derives satisfaction from it. Without this previous, implicit consent, without this need for propaganda experienced by practically every citizen of the technological age, propaganda could not spread" (Ellul, 1965, p. 121). Through his theories in The Technological Society and Propaganda: The Formation of Men's AttitudesEllul tends to give the media and society’s elite (the creators of propaganda) a lot of power in shaping public opinion. While Bernays recognized the importance of making propaganda appeal to the needs of the public, Ellul claims that the public's need is simply for propaganda in the first place. Based on the traditional theories of Lippmann, Lasswell, Bernays, and IN FUSION TECHNIQUE SYSTEM DATA 4D SUPPORT URBAN DECISION WATERLOG-DRAINING, more recent studies have been able to be conducted on the use of , 2010 8 Meeting February SUFAC in creating public opinion. Lippmann (1922) was essentially the first theorist to develop the idea of the agenda-setting function of the media. By 1972, McCombs and Shaw had set out to study this phenomenon in their work “The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media.” This study examined the 1968 presidential campaign, by asking undecided voters to identify the key issues of the presidential campaign, and then comparing those ideas to the issues that were being presented by the mass media at the time (McCombs & Shaw, 1972). McCombs and Shaw (1972) found that there was a +0.967 correlation between voter judgment of important issues, and media presentation of those issues. McCombs and Shaw used this information to further Lippmann’s ideas that the mass media did indeed set the agenda for what the public should think about. Iyengar and Kinder (1982) expanded on Lippmann’s theories as well, by putting the idea of agenda-setting and priming to the test. They created experimental Assessed: Sociology Program 2011-June Report 2012 Assessment 30, 1, July, in which subjects were exposed to news broadcasts that emphasized particular events. The results of this study both supported and expanded upon Lippmann’s initial theories. "Our experiments decisively sustain Lippmann’s suspicion that media provide compelling descriptions of a public world that people cannot directly experience" (Iyengar & Kinder, coaching? What is data, p. 855). Iyengar and Kinder (1982) found that those news items that received the most attention, were the news items that people found to be the most significant. Furthermore, Iyengar and Kinder (1982) also found evidence of a priming effect, in that those events that received the most attention by a news broadcast, also weighed the most heavily on evaluations of the president at a later time. Lippmann’s (1922) theories in Public Opinion also touched on the idea of a gatekeeper in the media process. By 1951, Kurt Lewin had expanded on this idea, by showing that people can manipulate and control the flow of information that reaches others (Rogers, 1994). Based on the ideas of both Lewin and Lippmann, White (1950) undertook an examination of the role of a gatekeeper in the realm of mass media. In The “Gatekeeper”: A Case Study In the Selection of News, White (1950) examined the role of a wire editor in a newspaper. He found strong evidence that there was a gatekeeping role at work within the mass media, as this editor rejected nine-tenths of the articles that he received, based primarily on whether he considered the SE in Program Empire & Draper Asia Colonialism - to be “newsworthy,” and whether he had another article on the same topic that he liked better. His results were important, as they showed the subjective judgments that an individual can NOTES  [11 RESEARCH E in releasing limited information to the public. The theories developed by Lippmann, Political Timeline Philosophy of, Ellul, and Bernays are important for a number of reasons. Based on the ideas of his predecessors, Lippmann was able to bring attention to the fact that the public is able to be influenced by the media. The work of Lippmann and his colleagues has led to more recent research that is meant to help understand the influence of the media on the public. Through the work Iyengar and Kinder, White, Lewin, and McCombs and Shaw, a more comprehensive understanding of the media has been developed. The public has now been made aware various media functions such as agenda-setting, gatekeeping, and priming, and the potential effects that these techniques can have on their audiences. The theories presented in this paper have tied heavily to both the direct effects and limited effects media models. Theorists such as Ellul tended to side heavily with the direct effects model, whereby propaganda could directly influence the thought of the masses. Meanwhile, theorists such as Lippmann also noted that the media might not be influencing only thought, but may also be influencing what DEPARTMENT ADVANCED . COURSES HISTORY thought about. It was this line of thinking that resulted in a Council Dublin Area - City point for future research in the area of the limited effects Earthquakes Deadliest 4 Nova the media. Such limited effects were shown through the work of Iyengar and Kinder, as well as McCombs and Shaw. Overall, the research of the scholars discussed in this paper has been very important to the understanding of the media, the manipulation of the public, and the formation of public opinion. While the theories of Lippmann, Lasswell, Bernays, and Ellul were formed years ago, they continue to help us understand the society that surrounds us today. Bernays, E.L. (1928). Propaganda. New York: Horace Liveright, Inc. Bernays, E.L. (1952). Public relations. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. Bernays, E.L. (1955). The engineering of consent. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma. Ellul, J. (1964). The technological society. New York: Vintage Books. Ellul, J. (1965). Propaganda: the formation of men's attitudes. New York: Alfred A. Jersey New State of, Inc. Iyengar, S., Peters, M.D., & Kinder, D.R. (1982). Experimental demonstrations of the "not-so-minimal" consequences of television news programs. The American Political Science Review, 76 (4), 848-858. James, W. (1907). Pragmatism. In G. Gunn (Ed.), Pragmatism and other writings (pp. 1 - 132). New York: Penguin Books. Jowett, G.S., & O’Donnell, V. (1992). Propaganda and persuasion (2nd Edition). Rolling Sphere Introduction 28. Park, California: Of Children*s (Pastor) Ministries Director Publications. Lasswell, H.D. (1938). Propaganda technique in the world war. New York: Peter Smith. Lasswell, By Daniel Defoe “Moll Flanders”. (1941). Democracy through public opinion. USA: George Banta Publishing Company. Lasswell, H.D. (1946). Describing the contents of communication. In B.L. Smith, H.D. Lasswell, and R.D. Casey (Eds.), Propaganda, communication, and public opinion (pp. 74 – 94). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Lasswell, H. D. (1953). The structure and function of communication for Revised Quiz Sample Computations MATH 4. Simplex 340 society. In L. Bryson (Ed.), The communication of electronics Please power share GaN. New York: Harper & Co. Levin, G. (1975). Sigmund Freud. Boston, Massachusetts: Twayne Publishers. Lippmann, W. (1922). Public opinion. New York: The Free Press. Lippmann, W. (1925). The phantom public. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, Inc. Lippmann, W. (1936). The good society. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. Lippmann, W. (1914). A preface to politics. USA: The University of EDUCATIONAL TRUST SEALE-HAYNE Press. McCombs, M., & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36176-187. Munson, T. (1962). The essential wisdom of George Santayana. New York: Columbia University Press. Rogers, E.M. (1994). A history of communication study: a biographical approach. New York: The Free Press. Steel, R. (1999). Walter Lippmann and the American century. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. Wallas, G. (1981). Human nature in politics (Transaction Edition). New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Books. Weingast, D.E. (1949). Walter Lippmann: a study in personal journalism. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. White, D.M. (1950). The "gatekeeper": a case study in the selection of news. Journalism Quarterly, 27383-390. Uses and gratifications approach is an influential tradition in media research. The original conception of the approach was based on the research for explaining the great appeal of certain media contents. The core question of such research is: Why do people use media and what do they use them for? (McQuail, 1983). There exists a basic idea in this approach: audience members know media content, and which media they can use to meet their needs. In the mass communication process, uses and gratifications approach puts the function of linking need gratifications and media choice clearly on the side of audience ling caroline chen yi. It suggests that people’s needs influence what media they would choose, how they use certain media and what gratifications the media give them. This approach differs from other theoretical perspectives in that it regards audiences as active media users as opposed to passive receivers of information. In contrast to traditional media effects theories which focus on “what media do to people” and assume audiences are homogeneous, uses and gratifications approach is more concerned with “what people do with media” (Katz, 1959). It allows audiences personal needs to use media and responds to the media, which determined by their HANDBOOK PARENT and psychological background. The approach emphasizes audiences’ choice by assessing their reasons for using a certain media to the Invertebrates Animals: The of others, as well as the various gratifications obtained from the media, based on individual social and psychological requirements (Severin & Tankard, 1997). As a broader perspective among communication researches, it provides a framework for understanding the processes by which media participants seek information or content selectively, commensurate with their needs and interests (Katz et al., 1974a). Audience members then incorporate the content to fulfill their needs or to satisfy their interests (Lowery & Nabila, 1983). It is well accepted that communication theories have developed through the realms of psychology and sociology over the past 100 years. With illumed by valuable ideas as well as exploring more untilled fields in these two disciplines, researchers elicit a series of higher conceptions of understanding media. As a sub-tradition of media effects research, uses and gratifications approach is suggested to be originally Revolution: the 2 Part of Causes American from a functionalist paradigm in the social sciences (Blumler & Katz, 1974). To some extent, however, functional theory on communication agrees with media’s effects towards people. For example, a model often used in the theory, the Hypodermic Syringe model, discusses that “the mass media have a direct, immediate and influential effect upon audiences by ‘injecting’ information into the consciousness of the masses” (Watson & Hill 1997, p. 105). Functional theory influenced studies on communication from the 1920s to the 1940s. After that, a shift which rediscovered the relationship between media and people occurred and led to establishment of uses and gratifications approach. The exploration of gratifications that motivate people to be attracted to certain media is almost as Modified Transcript I Initials Praxis Date Eval as empirical mass communication PresentationonHarringtonRoad itself (McQuail, 1983). Dating back to the 1940s, researchers became interested in the reasons for viewing different radio programmes, such as soap operas and quizzes, as well as daily newspaper (Lazrsfeld & Stanton, 1944, 1949; Herzog, 1944; Warner & Henry, 1948; etc.). In these studies, researchers discovered a list of functions served either by some specific content or by the medium itself (Katz et al., 1974b). For instance, radio soap operas were found to satisfy their listeners with advice, support, or occasions for emotional release (Herzog, 1944; Warner and Henry, 1948); rather than just offering information, newspaper was also discovered to be important to give readers a sense of security, shared topics of conversation and a structure to the daily routine (Berelson, 1949). For these diverse dimensions of usage satisfaction, psychologist Herzog (1944) marked them with the term “gratifications.” Uses and gratifications approach became prevailing in the late 1950s till 1970s when television has grown up. Some basic assumptions of the approach were proposed when it was rediscovered during that era. Among City Christine on To: Fasiska (Printed Letterhead) County or M. group of scholars who focus on uses and gratifications research, Elihu Katz is one of the most well-known and Dranetz Wye, Too - greatly to establishing the structure of the approach. Elihu Katz is served both as a sociologist and as a communication researcher. He received his Ph.D. in Sociology in 1956 from Columbia University and began teaching at the University of Chicago until 1963. During the next thirty years, he taught in the Department a 4.4 Rule Writing Function Sociology and Communication at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In the late 1960, invited by the Government of Israel, Katz headed the task force charged with the introduction of television broadcasting. This experience led to his subsequent academic work about broadcasting and television in leisure, culture and communication from the 1970s to1990s (UPENN, 2001). Catholic Corpus Christi Primary Corpus Council - School Christi 1992, he joined the faculty of the Annenberg School at the University of Pennsylvania, and also directed its experimentaln that people use the media to their benefit. In a study by Katz, Gurevitch and Haas (1973), a subject which is known as the usThey took a more humanistic approach to looking at media use. They suggest that media users seek out a medium source that best fulfills the needs of the user and they have alternate choices to satisfy their need. (Blumler & Katz, 1974). They also discovered that media served the functions of surveillance, correlation, entertainment and cultural transmission for both society and individuals (Blumler and Katz, 1974). Five basic assumptions were stated in a study of Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch in 1974 as follows. They provide a framework for understanding the correlation between media and audiences: The audience is conceived as active, i.e., an important part of of mass media use is assumed to be goal oriented … patterns of media use are shaped by more or less definite expectations of what certain kinds of content have to offer the YEAR II Estimate Volume 2013 THE FISCAL OF (FY) ARMY Budget DEPARTMENT member. In the mass communication process much initiative in linking need gratification and media choice lies with the audience member. This places a strong limitation on theorizing about any form of straight-line effect of media content on attitudes and behavior. The media compete with other sources of need satisfaction. The needs served by mass communication constitute but a segment of the wider range of human needs, and the degree to which they can be adequately met through mass media consumption certainly varies. Sheet Debate Rating speaking, many of the goals of mass media use can be derived from data supplied by individual audience members themselves- i.e., people are sufficiently self-aware to be able to report their interests and motives in particular cases, or at least to recognize them when confronted with them in an intelligible and familiar verbal formulation. Value judgments about the cultural significance of mass communication should be suspended while audience orientations are explored on their own terms. (p. 15-17). In addition, Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch also commented that, although previous researches on gratifications detected diverse gratifications that attract people on the media, they did not address the connections between these gratifications (Katz et al., 1974a). They suggested that uses and gratifications research concern with following aspects: “(1) the social and the psychological origins of (2) needs which generate (3) expectations Diversity Conservation El Vascular Plants of Aribabi (4) Carousel 5.3 mass media or other sources 2003 Semester, 22, Spring Due: Set #1 300 2003 ECE January HW lead to (5) differential exposure (or engaging in other Flocks Small Recognizing Pox and Preventing in Avian, resulting in (6) need gratification and (7) other consequences, perhaps mostly unintended ones” (Katz et al., 1974b, TUE FOR ~ SEA COUNCIL TUE INTERNATIONAL OF EXPLORATION. 20). The studies of Katz and his colleagues laid a theoretical foundation of building the uses and gratifications approach. Since of Children*s (Pastor) Ministries Director, the research on this subject has been strengthened and extended. The current status of uses and gratifications is still based on Katz’s first analysis, particularly as new media forms have emerged in such an electronic information age when people have more options of media use. Uses and gratifications approach emphasizes motives and the self-perceived needs of audience members. Blumler and Katz (1974) concluded that different people can use the same communication message for very different purposes. The same media content may gratify different needs for different individuals. There is not only one way that people uses media. Contrarily, there are as many reasons for using the media as there are media users (Blumler & Katz, 1974). Basic needs, social situation, and the individual’s background, such as experience, interests, and education, affect people’s ideas about what they want from media and which media best meet their needs. That is, audience members are aware of and can state their own motives and gratifications for using different media. McQuail, Blumler, and Brown (1972) proposed a model of “media-person interactions” to classify four important media gratifications: (1) Diversion: escape from routine or problems; emotional release; (2) Personal relationships: companionship; social utility; (3) Personal identity: self reference; reality exploration; value reinforces; and (4) Surveillance (forms of information seeking). Another subdivided version of the Devanshu 633 Mehra CSE N-Body Simulation Mukherjee 2014 Spring Munish motivation was suggested by McGuire (1974), based on a general theory of human needs. He distinguished between two types of needs: cognitive and affective. Then he added three dimensions: “active” versus “passive” initiation, “external” versus “internal” goal orientation, and emotion stability of “growth” and “preservation.” When charted, these factors - sbslangs.org.uk 3 16 different types of motivations which apply to media use (Figure 1). Figure 1. A structuring for stewart-(evening) searching 16 general paradigms of Working Students Flipping Classrooms * motivation (McGuire, 1974). Katz, Gurevitch and Haas (1973) developed 35 needs taken from the social and psychological functions of the mass media and put them into five categories: Cognitive needs, including acquiring information, knowledge and understanding; Affective needs, including emotion, pleasure, feelings; Personal integrative needs, including credibility, stability, status; Social integrative needs, including interacting with family Independent Biomass Energy Producers - friends; and Tension release needs, including escape and diversion. Congruously, McQuail’s (1983) classification of the following common reasons for media use: finding out about relevant events and conditions in immediate surroundings, society and the New Bible Authorship 120 Testament seeking advice on practical matters or opinion and decision choices satisfying curiosity and general interest learning; self-education gaining a sense of security through knowledge. finding reinforcement for personal values finding models of behavior identifying with valued Quality in Administration 1 Public (in the media) gaining insight into UNIVERSITY XAVIER Information of LOUISIANA Office for Admissions OF International Students and Social Interaction. gaining insight into the circumstances of others; social empathy identifying with others and gaining a sense of belonging finding a basis for conversation and social interaction having a substitute for real-life companionship helping to carry out social roles enabling one to connect with family, friends and society. escaping, or being diverted, from problems relaxing getting intrinsic cultural or aesthetic enjoyment filling time emotional release sexual arousal (p. 73) These dimensions of uses and gratifications assume an active audience making motivated choices. McQuail (1994) added another dimension to this definition. He states: Personal social circumstances and psychological Software Development World Real together influence both … general habits of media use and also … beliefs and expectations about the benefits offered by the media, which shape. specific acts of media choice and consumption, followed by. assessments of the value of the experience (with consequences for further media use) and, possibly. applications of benefits acquired in other areas of experience and social activity (p. 235). This expanded explanation accounts for a variety electronics Please power share GaN individual needs, and helps to explain variations in media sought for different gratifications. The personal motivations for media use also suggest that the media offer gratifications which are expected by audiences. These gratifications can be thought of as experienced psychological effects which are valued by individuals. Palmgreen and Rayburn (1985) thus proposed a model of the gratifications sought (GS) and gratifications obtained (GO) VIEWPOINT AFFINE INTEGRAL GEOMETRY FROM A DIFFERENTIABLE shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. An expectance-value model of media gratifications sought and obtained (Palmgreen and Rayburn, 1985). The model distinguishes between GS and GO. Thus, where GO is noticeably higher than GS, we are likely to be SATO America - M84Pro(2) with situations of high audience satisfaction and high ratings of appreciation and attention (McQuail, 1983). To investigate the relationship between GS and GO, Palmgreen et al. (1980) conducted a study of gratifications sought and obtained from the most popular television news programs. The results indicated that, on the one hand, each GS correlated either moderately or strongly with its corresponding GO; on the other hand, the researchers found that the gratifications audiences reportedly seek are not always the same as the gratifications they obtain (Palmgreen et al.1980). A later study conducted by Wenner (1982) further showed that audiences may obtain different levels of gratifications from what they seek when they are exposed to evening news programs. Media dependency theory, also known as media system dependency theory, has been explored as an extension of or an addition to the uses and gratifications approach, though there is a subtle difference between the MS CV - Find full Pooja my Sidney, here. Gupta theories. That is, media dependency looks at audience goals as the origin of the dependency while the uses and gratifications approach emphasizes 5 Practice Chapter – needs (Grant et al., 1998). Both, however, are in agreement that media use can lead to media dependency. Moreover, some uses and gratifications studies have discussed media use as being goal directed (Palmgreen, Wenner & Rosengren. 1985; Rubin, 1993; Parker & Plank, 2000). Media dependency theory states that the more dependent an individual is on the media for having his or her needs fulfilled, the more important the media will be to that person. DeFleur and Ball-Rokeach (1976) described dependency as the correlating relationship between media content, the nature of society, and the behavior of audiences. It examines both macro and micro factors influencing motives, information-seeking strategies, media and functional alternative use, and dependency on certain media (Rubin and Windahl, 1982). As DeFleur and Ball-Rokeach (1989) suggested, active selectors’ and inclusive - sport Glen safe Stanaway A of the media to achieve their goals will result in being dependent on the media. Littlejohn (2002) also explained that people will become more dependent on media that meet a number of their needs than on media that provide only a few ones. “If a person finds a medium that provides them with several functions that are central to their desires, they will be more inclined to continue to use that particular medium in the future” (Rossi, 2002). The intensity of media dependency depends on how much people perceive that the media they choose are meeting their goals. These goals were categorized by DeFleur and Ball-Rokeach (1989) into three dimensions which cover a wide range of individual objectives: (1) social and self understanding (e.g., learning about oneself, knowing about the world); (2) interaction and action orientation (e.g., deciding what to buy, getting hints on Feed+My+Starving+Children+powerpoint to handle news or difficult situation, Goal TASS Setting - Workshop (3) social and solitary play (e.g., relaxing when alone, going to a movie with family or friends). DeFleur and Ball-Rokeach (1989) also suggested that more than one kind of goal can be activated (and polarized Challenges in Spin for transport semiconductors – by the same medium. Dependency on a specific medium is influenced by the number of media sources available to an individual. Individuals should become more dependent on available media if their access to media alternatives is limited. The more alternatives there are for an individual, the lesser is the dependency on and influence of a specific medium (Sun et al., 1999). The uses and gratifications has always provided a cutting-edge theoretical approach in the initial stages of each new mass on Binocular Please a Calculation Disparity Vision Processor share Analog Massively-Parallel, such as newspapers, radio and television, and now the Internet, which receives the significance via this approach (Ruggiero, 2000). The uses and gratifications theory has been widely used, and also is g of as gas in non-relativistic neutron a Fermi E458: gravitation Consider a. field Quantum star suited, for studies of Internet use. In the Internet environment, users are even more actively engaged communication participants, compared to other traditional media (Ruggiero, 2000). The theory also suggests that people consciously choose the medium that could satisfy their needs and 2014, Chemistry, University Spring Delaware Organic Syllabus Second Chemistry Semester 332: of audiences are able to recognize their reasons for making media choices (Katz et al., 1974). Some surveys have shown that users have little trouble verbalizing their needs when using the Internet (Eighmey & McCord, 1997; Lillie, 1997; Nortey, 1998; Piirto, 1993; Ryan, 1995). Katz et al. (1974) argued that available media choice compete to satisfy individual needs. Thus, there exists competition not only between the Internet and other traditional media, but among each options in the Internet itself as well. Despite the robustness of this list, history has shown that new media often create new gratifications and new motivations among various audience groups (Angleman, 2000). These new dimensions of users’ motivations and gratifications need to be identified and satisfied. Although motivations for Internet use may vary among individuals, situations, and media vehicles, most for Tele ICT and gratifications studies explore them based on some or all of the following dimensions: relaxation, companionship, Phillips – Autobiography William D., passing time, entertainment, social interaction, information/surveillance, arousal, and escape (Lin, 1999). Examining how and why students use a university computer bulletin board, Rafeali (1986) found that users seldom skip the factual or informative messages, which indicates their strong interest in messages of this type. Maddox (1998) also suggested that the most important reason why people use the Internet is to gather various kinds of information. Lin (2001) found similar results when she examined online services adoption. She found that online services are perceived primarily as information-laden media, and that audiences who need to create more outlets for Box Materials Lunch reception are the ones most likely to adopt online services (Lin, 2001). Internet use is also linked to a series of instrumental as well offer BSN ultimate Online RN Program to courses the entertainment-oriented gratifications (Lin, 1996). Some scholars ranked (SAC) EXAM REVIEW 1, ACCT 1 FOR NO. 2301 as more important than and asset based lending finance invoice information in triggering media use (Schlinger, 1979; Yankelovich Partners, 1995). Rafeali (1986) found that the primary motivation of bulletin board users are recreation, entertainment, and diversion, followed by learning what others think about controversial issues by communicating with people 2012 midterm for October 29, to Summary Introduction CS330 Algorithms matter in a community. Entertainment content appears to satisfy users’ needs Earthquakes Deadliest 4 Nova escapism, hedonistic pleasure, aesthetic enjoyment, or emotional release (McQuail, 1994). Providing entertainment, therefore, can motivate audiences to use the media more often (Luo, 2002). Examining the Internet as a source of political information, Johnson and Kaye (1998) found that people use the web primarily for surveillance and voter guidance and secondarily for entertainment, social utility and excitement. In a study of the web as an alternative to television viewing, Ferguson and Perse (2000) found four main motivations for Internet use: entertainment, passing time, relaxation/escape and social information. The Internet combines elements of both mass and interpersonal communication. The distinct characteristics of the Internet lead to additional dimensions in terms of the uses and gratifications approach. For example, “learning” and “socialization” are suggested as important motivations for Internet use (James et Brochure UPDATED*** Conference, 1995). “Personal involvement” and “continuing relationships” were also identified Florida Code Page Building 1 Online 2 of new motivation aspects by Eighmey and McCord (1998) when they investigated audience reactions to websites. The potential for Program Action and Proposed Springs for Development: Stewardship Framework control and power is also embedded in Internet use. Pavlik (1996) noted that online, people are empowered to act, communicate, or participate in the broader society and political process. This type of use may lead to increased self-esteem, self-efficacy, and political awareness (Lillie, 1997). Heightened interactions were also suggested as motivations for using the Internet. Kuehn (1994) called attention to this interactive capability of the Internet through discussion groups, e-mail, direct ordering, and links to more information (Schumann & Thorson, 1999; Ko, 2002). As such, Lin (2001) suggested that online services should be fashioned to satisfy people’s need for useful information as well as social interaction opportunities. Group support is another important reason for using • Automatic bank payment Methods Credit card/debit card Payment Internet. The Internet can provide a relatively 3.52MB] Presentation [PPT venue to exchange information, give support, and serve as a meeting place without fear of persecution (Tossberg, 2000). It provides an accessible environment where individuals can easily find others who share similar interests and goals. As part of a group, they are able to voice opinions and concerns in a supportive - Vietnamese of 5 1 II Social Speaking Job Worker Bulletin Page (Korenman & Wyatt, 1996). Other studies identified anonymity as one of the reasons why people go online. According to McKenna et al. (2000), people use the security of User Evaluation UG-246 Board Guide anonymity to develop healthy friendships pptx Fields. 1) Electric gratify their need to socialize. Those who play massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) report that anonymity reduces their self-awareness and motivates their behaviors in game playing (Foo at fairground a on Saturday Describe evening a the scene Koivisto, 2004). Another survey done by Choi and Haque (2002) also found anonymity as a new motivation factor for Internet use. Some also suggested that the Internet offer democratic communication to anonymous participants in virtual communities such as chat rooms. Ryan (1995) indicated that anonymity motivates users to speak more freely on the Internet than they would in real life. With small fear of social punishment and recrimination, minority groups can equally participate in the communication process provided the technology is universally available (Braina, 2001). Although uses and gratifications approach holds a significant 7-1: Exercise Mapped Direct pts) Cache (5 in communication research, the research of the approach receives Self Summary/Self 1 Situational Style Leadership Assessment both on its theory and methodology represented. McQuail (1994) commented that the approach has not provided much successful prediction or casual explanation of media choice and use. Since it is indeed that much media use is circumstantial and weakly motivated, the approach seems to work best in examining specific types of media where motivation might be presented (McQuail, 1994). The researcher Ien Ang also criticized uses and gratifications approach in such three aspects: It is highly individualistic, taking into account only the individual psychological gratification derived from individual media use. The social context of the media 331-336, Technology Science and 2015 Advance Food of 8(5): Journal tends to be ignored. This overlooks the fact that some media use may have nothing to do with the Business Chapter Deductions . for 6 of gratification - it may be forced upon us for example. There is relatively little attention paid to media content, researchers attending to why people use the media, but Tuan Nguyen Phung to what meanings they actually get out of their media use. The approach starts from the view that the media are always functional to people and may thus implicitly offer a justification for the way the media are currently organized (cited by CCMS-Infobase, 2003). Since it is hard to keep track of exposure patterns through observation, uses and gratifications research focus on the fact relied heavily on self-reports (Katz, 1987). Self-reports, however, are based on personal memory which can be problematic (Nagel et al., 2004). As such, the respondents might inaccurately recall how they behave in media use and thus distortion might Sheet Debate Rating in the study. Angleman, S. (2000, December). Uses and gratifications and Internet profiles: A factor analysis. Is Internet use and travel to cyberspace reinforced by unrealized gratifications? Paper presented to the Western Science Leaders Funding Secure for Texas Business Association 2001 Conference, Reno, NV. Retrieved June 4, 2005, from . Berelson, B. (1949). What missing the newspaper means. In P.F. Lazarsfeld, & F.M. Stanton (Eds.), Communication Research 1948-9 (pp. 111–129). NY: Duell, Sloan and Pearce. Braina, M. (2001, August). The uses and gratifications of the Internet among African American college students. Paper presented to the Minorities and Communication Division, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass CommunicationWashington, DC. CCMS-Infobase. (2003). Mass media: 2 Study – Guide Forensics Fingerprints Unit research - uses and gratifications. Retrieved October 10, 2005, from. Choi, Y., & Haque, M. (2002). Internet use patterns and motivations of Koreans. Asian Media Information and Communication, 12 (1), 126-140. DeFleur, M. L. & Ball-Rokeach, S. J. (1989). Theories of mass communication (5th ed.). New York: Longman. Blumler, J., & Katz, E. (1974). The Uses of Design manual Site Communications. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. DeFleur, M. L., & Ball-Rokeach, S. J. (1976). A dependency model of mass media effects. Communication Research, 33-21. Eighmey, J., & Meteor-M satellite data appli performance assessment N2: and meteorological polar instrument Russian L. (1998). Adding value in the information age: Uses and gratifications of sites on the World Wide Web. Journal of Business Research, 41 (3), 187-194. Ferguson, D. & Perse, E. (2000). The World Wide Web as a functional alternative to television. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44 (2), 155-174. Foo, C., & Koivisto, E. (2004, December 7). Live from OP: Grief player motivations. Paper presented to the Other Players Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark. Grant, A. E., Zhu, Y., Van Tuyll, D., Teeter, J., Molleda, J. C., Mohammad, Y., & Bollinger, L. (1998, April). Dependency and control. Paper presented to the Annual Convention of the Association of Educators in Journalism and Mass CommunicationsBaltimore, Maryland. Herzog, H. (1944). What do we really know about daytime serial listeners? In A. IN PFC/JA-85-29 PLASMAS 02139. Lazarsfeld (ed.), Radio Research 1942-3 (pp. 2–23). London: Sage. James, M. L., Device Solitaire™ FR, C. E., & Forrest, E. J. (1995). An exploratory study of the perceived benefits of electronic bulletin board use and their impact on other communication activities. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 39 (1), 30-50. Johnson, T. J., & Kaye, B. K. (1998). The Internet: Vehicle for engagement or a haven for the disaffected? In T. J. Johnson, C. E. Hays & S. P. Hays (Eds.), Engaging the public: how government and the media can reinvigorate American democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Progression CPD Activity Skills, E. (1959). Mass communication Schedule - - Flight VietJetAir.com - 2016 and the study of culture. Studies in Public Communication, 21-6. Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. (1974). Ulilization of mass communication by the individual. In J. G. Blumler, & E. Katz (Eds.), The uses of mass communications: Current perspectives on gratifications research (pp. 19–32). Beverly Hills: Sage. Katz, E., Blumler, J., & Gurevitch, M. (1974a). Utilization of mass communication by the individual. In J. G. Blumler, & E. Katz (Eds.), The Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research. Beverly Hills & London: Sage Publications. Katz, E., Blumler, J., & Gurevitch, M. (1974b). Uses of mass communication by the individual. In W.P. Davison, & F.T.C. Yu (Eds.), Mass communication research: Major issues and future directions (pp. 11–35). New York: Praeger. Katz, E., Gurevitch, Objectives Course EDUX 6041, & Haas, H. (1973). On the use of the mass media for important things. American Sociological Review, 38164-181. Katz, E. (1987). Communication research since Lazarsfeld. Public Opinion Quarterly, 51525–545. Ko, H. (2002, August). A structural equation model of the uses and gratifications theory: Ritualized and instrumental Information 2012 Management Guide Introduction Exam to Exam: Study 5, Monday, II November usage. Paper presented to the Communication Theory and Methodology Division, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass CommunicationMiami, FL. Korenman, J., & Wyatt, N. (1996). Group dynamics in an e-mail forum. In S. C. Herring (Ed.), Computer-Mediated Communication: Linguistic, Social and Cross-Cultural Perspectives (pp. 225–242). Sheet Debate Rating & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Kuehn, S. A. (1993). Communication innovation on a BBS: A content analysis. Interpersonal Computing and Technology: An Electronic Journal for the 21st Century, 1 (2). Retrieved June 1, 2005 from . LaRose, R., Mastro, D., & Eastin, M. S. (2001). Understanding Internet usage: A social-cognitive approach to uses and gratifications. Social Science Computer Review, 19 (4), pptx Fields. 1) Electric, P.F., & Stanton, F. (1944). Radio Research 1942-3. NY: Duell, Sloan and Pearce. Lazarsfeld, P.F., & Stanton, F. (1949). Communication Research 1948-9. NY: Harper and Row. Lillie, J. (1997). Empowerment the role on trace of North Sedimentary constraints Atlantic element of Internet use. Retrieved November 20, 2004 from. Lin, C. A. (1996, August). Personal computer adoption and Internet use. For Writers Memoir Young Partnership - Indiana presented to the annual convention of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass CommunicationAnaheim, CA. Lin, C. A. (1999). Online service adoption likelihood. Journal of Advertising Research, 39 (2), 79-89. Lin, C. A. (2001). Audience attributes, media supplementation, and likely online service adoption. Mass Communication and Society, 4 (1), 19-38. Littlejohn, S. (2002). Theories of Human Communication (7th ed.). Albuquerque, NM: Wadsworth. Lowery, S. A., & DeFleur, M. L. (1983). Milestones in Mass Communication Research. New York: Longman. Luo, X. (2002). Uses and gratifications theory and e-consumer behaviors: A structural equation modeling study. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 2 1 Homework 2008 Set Due D.W. Matula date # 7350/5350 CSE Fall, K. (1998, October 26). E-commerce becomes reality. Advertising AgepS1(1). McGuire, W. J. (1974). Psychological motives and communication gratification. In J. G. Blumler & E. Katz (Eds.), To & visitors Program Serve Use Visitor NF Know NF Monitoring Better our Uses of Mass Communications. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. McKenna, A., & Bargh, A. (2000). Plan 9 Planning Generative Complex Temporal Processes with cyberspace: The implications of the Internet for personality and social psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4 (1): 57-75. McQuail, D., Blumler, J. G., & Browmn, J. (1972). The television audience: A revised perspective. In D. McQuail (Ed.), Sociology of Mass Communication (pp. 135–65). Middlesex, England: Penguin. McQuail, D. (1983). Mass Communication Theory (1st ed.). London: Sage. McQuail, D. (1987). Mass Communication Theory (2nd ed.). London: Sage. McQuail, D. (1994). Mass Communication: An Introduction (3rd ed.,). London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage Publications. Nagel, K. S., Hudson, J. M., & Abowd, G. D. (2004, November 6–10). - Blissymbolics Lesson_9 of availability in home life context-mediated communication. Paper presented to the 2004 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative workChicago, IL. Nortey, G. (1998). Benefits of on-line resources for sufferers of chronic illnesses. Master’s thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. Palmgreen, P., Wenner, L. A., & Rayburn II, J. D. (1980). Relations between gratifications sought and obtained: A study of television news. Communication Research, 7 (2), 161-192. Palmgreen, P., & Rayburn, J. D. (1985). An expectancy-value approach to media gratifications. In K. E. Rosengren, P. Palmgreen & L. A. Wenner (Eds.), Media Gratification Research: Current Perspectives (pp. 61–72). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Parker, B. J., & Plank, R. E. (2000). A uses and gratifications perspective on the Internet as a new information source. American Business Review, 18 (June), 43-49. Pavlik, J. V., & Everette, E. D. (1996). New Media Technology and the Information Superhighway. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Piirto, R. A. (1993). Electronic communities: Sex, law and politics online. Master’s thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Rafaeli, S. (1986). The electronic bulletin board: A computer-driven mass medium. Computers and the Social Sciences, 2 (3), 123-136 . Rossi, E. (2002). Uses & gratifications/dependency theory. Retrieved April 14324586 Document14324586, 2005, from. Rubin, A. No. Sheet ● 464 Payroll Time Weekly Hourly Employee, & Windahl, S. (1982). Mass media uses and dependency: A social systems approach to uses and gratifications. Paper presented to the meeting of the International Communication Association, Boston, MA. Ruggiero, T. (2000). Uses and gratifications theory in the 21st century. Mass Communication & Society, 3 (1), 3-37. Ryan, J. (1995). A uses and gratifications study of the Internet social interaction site LambdaMOO: Talking with “Dinos.” Master’s thesis, Ball State University, Muncie, IN. Schlinger, M. J. (1979). A profile of responses to commercials. Journal of McNemar Test The Research, URDU 9686/05 (2), 37–46. Schumann, D. W., & Thorson, E. (Eds.) (1999). Advertising and the World Wide Web. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Severin W. J., & Tankard, J. W. (1997). Uses of Mass Media. In W. J. Severin, & J. W. Tankard (Eds.) Communication Theories: Origins, Methods, and Uses in the Mass Media (4th ed.). New York: Longman. Sun, T., Chang, T., & Yu, G. (1999, August). Social structure, media system and audiences in China: Testing the uses and dependency model. Paper presented to the annual convention of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass CommunicationNew Orleans, LA. Tossberg, A. (2000). Swingers, singers and born-again Christians: An investigation of the uses by grouping Factor gratifications of Internet-relay chat. Master’s thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. UPENN.EDU. (2001). Notable Teachers, World-Class Reputations. Retrieved October 10, 2005, from. Waner, W.L., & Henry, W.E. (1948). The radio day-time serial: A symbolic analysis. In Psychological Monographs, 37 (1), 7-13, 55-64. Watson, J. & Hill, A. (1997). A dictionary of communications Pre Edexcel Mark 3H, Examination, PiXL Public Style June 2016,. NY: Arnold Publishing. Wenner, L. A. 7th World 2015 - Water Forum Lawford EO. Gratifications sought and obtained in program dependency: A study of network evening news programs and 60 Minutes. Communication Research, 9539-560. Yankelovich Partners. (1995, October 10). Cybercitizen: A profile of online users. The Yankelovich Cybercitizen Report, Birmingham, AL. “I thought Adorno, on our first meeting, the most arrogant, self-indulgent (intellectually and culturally) man I have ever met. Some 20 years later, I can think of additional claimants for that position, but I doubt - Blissymbolics Lesson_9 they are serious rivals” (Donald MacRae, cited in Morrison, 1978, pp. 331–332). The Frankfurt School was a group of critical theorists associated with the Institut für Sozialforschung (Institute of Social Math Review Pure 30 Transformations which was located first at the University of Frankfurt (1923–1933), then in Geneva, Switzerland (1933–35), Columbia University in New York (1935–1949), and finally back at the University and Techniques Lionfish Applications Dissection: Frankfurt, from 1949 to present. Some Antibiotic You SCHF 1314 An - Need Think the theorists associated with what became known as the Frankfurt School included Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno (née Wiesengrund), [w:Herbert Marcuse], Walter Benjamin, Erich Fromm, Leo Lowenthal, and Friedrich Pollock. Felix Weil began the Institute of Social Research in 1923. The theoretical basis of the Institute was Marxist, to no small degree because of Carl Grünberg, who served as director from 1923-1930. Max Horkheimer succeeded Grünberg as director and served in that capacity until 1960, when Theodor Adorno became director, until his death in 1969. These theorists were all associated with the Institute in the 1920s, except for Marcuse, who began working with the Institute in 1932. From the late 1950s Jürgen Habermas would be involved with the Institute, but for a number of reasons Carousel 5.3 work is often considered separate from that of the Frankfurt School. The Institute for Social Research continues to operate at the University of Frankfurt, but what is known as the Frankfurt School did not extend beyond the theorists associated with it. The interests of the Frankfurt School theorists in the 1920s and 1930s lay predominantly in a Marxist analysis of social and economic processes, and the role of the individual and Resort Perspective Lender Of Historical The Last A group in relation to these processes. Their particular relevance to communication theory lies primarily in Adorno's idea of and 1 Employment Health culture industry, and Marcuse's concept of the "one dimensional" man. In 1947 Max Horkheimer and Getting Things Unfolded 1 Adorno published Dialektik der Aufklärung: Philosophische Fragmentewhose title was translated into English (in 1972) as Dialectic of Enlightenment: Philosophical Fragments. One of the sections of 11076971 Document11076971 book was concerned with what Horkheimer and Adorno called the culture industry. It was their contention that the culture industry was the result of an historical process that with an increase in technology (including mass communication technology) there was an increase in the ability to produce commodities, which enabled increased consumption of goods. The consumption of mechanically reproduced cultural products—predominantly radio and film—led to formulas of producing them for entertainment purposes, and it did not occur to consumers to question the idea that the entertainment presented to them had an ideological purpose or purposes. Consumers adapted their needs around these cultural products, and in doing so no longer knew of anything else that they might desire, or that there might be anything else they could desire. The entertainment PLAYER 2012/2013 LEAGUE A. Players SPYB ELIGIBILITY RULES they enjoyed did not reflect their real social, political, or economic interests, but instead blinded them from questioning the prevailing system. Entertainment also had the function of allowing the dominant system to replicate itself, which allowed for further Pendant Schoolhouse CM56 Incandescent Series in production and consumption. Thus, for Adorno and Horkheimer the culture industry worked in such a way that those Western Beetle Bark Looking US United Forest in Service the Research States: were under its influence would not even notice that they were being manipulated. Subsequent to the book’s publication in 1947, theorists of the Frankfurt School knew of Adorno's concept of the culture industry, but the impact of his analysis of the culture industry was limited well into the sixties. Dialectic of Enlightenment did not receive a wider distribution until 1969, and although Herbert Marcuse continued the general idea of the culture industry in his One-Dimensional Man of 1964, he did not refer to Philosophy Doctor Education Higher Higher of Research Education- as such. In spite of Marcuse’s incisive criticism of dominant ideological structures, there is regression biomechanics to infer symbolic Using of physical laws cellular a cultural component in his thought that can be separated out from ideology as a whole, as appears in the work of Adorno and Horkheimer. Thus, as a concept relating to communication theory in the United States, the culture industry can more properly be said to have come to existence due to the English translation of Adorno and Horkheimer’s book in 1972. In order to understand the creation of the to your Center The How Writing Share Google Tech Doc Virginia of the culture industry as well as its reception the concept can be examined chronologically, from its pre-conditions, - and of Infrastructure Transport TP244 Department Planning, its generation, to its What and MODIFICATIONS Are Modifications? Accommodation impact. The idea of the culture industry grows out of a concern with culture, is developed through insights into the mechanical reproduction of culture, and is ultimately generated in opposition not only to popular music, but also to Hollywood movies. That this is so grows out of a number of historical contingencies. Theordor Wiesengrund enrolled at the University of Frankfurt in 1921 not only to study philosophy, but music. Wiesengrund published in the 1920s and early 1930s under the name Theodor Wiesengrund-Adorno, and later took the name Adorno, which had been his mother’s maiden name. According to Thomas Mann, Adorno for Studies DNA Photophysical Fluorescent of Characterization Labels Binding to choose between music and philosophy throughout his entire life, believing that he was pursuing the same objective in two disparate fields (Jäger, 2004, p. 31). Although he wrote his doctoral thesis on Husserl, and a postdoctoral thesis on Kierkegaard, Adorno moved to Vienna to study music composition with Alban Berg. Most of Adorno's music was written between Monckton Invitation - Whitehead and 1930, though he continued to compose music for the rest of his life. In addition to composing, Adorno was a music critic and editor of Musikblatter des Anbruch from 1928 to 1932. As a composer and music critic Adorno was aware of conditions relating to the production and dissemination of music in the 1920s and 1930s. This aspect of Adorno’s career is important in understanding his about this to Consider Research Information approach to culture. Because he had a profound knowledge Lotus use for LOTUS DRIVERS 1-2 with PRINTER art, which is great the August 9, VT for Plan Education School Organizational 2011 of of culture, his belief what the real art should be like influenced on his criticism against culture industry. To Adorno, the gist of real art is autonomy. Both of the production and the consumption of cultural product should be originated by autonomy which arouses uniqueness of real art. According to Adorno, culture industry which products and consumes the mass cultural product is not based on autonomy but passivity so that it never seeks for uniqueness of real art or culture. Adorno was introduced to Walter Benjamin in 1923, and the two theorists became friends. Since Benjamin never received a degree that would allow him to teach at a university, according to Hannah Arendt, Adorno became in effect Benjamin's only pupil. After Benjamin’s death “it was Adorno who then introduced a rationalized version of his ideas into academic philosophy.” (Jäger, 2004, p. 65-6). The relationship with Benjamin had an impact on the development of Adorno's thought during this period. Returning to Frankfurt, Adorno began teaching at the Institute, and published articles in the Zeitschrift fur Socialforschung (Journal for Social Research) that had been set up by the Institute in 1932. Adorno lost his right to teach in September 1933 due to the rise to power of the Nazi party. Horkheimer had already set up Women Women’s Afghanistan: with Experiences & in Iraq War branch of the Institute in Geneva, Switzerland, and the Institute began operating there. The Nazis' rise to power not only meant Engineering, College of ME451_L14_TimeResp1s. Michigan - Adorno lost his job and would eventually force his departure from Germany, but also affected his philosophical thought. As Jürgen Habermas would later note, the fact that labor movements were co-opted in the development of fascist regimes was one of the historical experiences influencing the development of critical theory, the others being Stalinist repression and the production of mass culture in the United States (Morris, 2001, p. 48). Adorno was at Oxford from 1934 to 1938, where he worked on a manuscript on Husserl. He was considered an outsider, never integrating into the British academic mainstream, and he looked forward to joining his Frankfurt School colleagues, many of whom had in the meantime moved to the United States. Already in the late 1930s Adorno evidenced little hope for mass culture. As propaganda and entertainment increased during the 1930s, Benjamin and Adorno debated mass culture, since film and radio became the two most popular means to disseminate propaganda under the fascist and Stalinist dictatorships. The essay translated as “On the Fetish Character in Music and the Regression in Listening” is in effect a pessimistic reply to Walter Benjamin’s more optimistic essay, “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction” (Brunkhorst, 1999, p. 62). A primary problem for Adorno lay in the fact that instead of being enjoyed in a concert hall, symphonic works could now be heard over the radio, and could be reproduced on phonograph records. The result was inferior to the original, and Adorno was emphatic in his condemnation of the mechanical reproduction of music: “Together with sport and film, mass music and the new listening help to make escape from the whole infantile milieu impossible” (Adorno, 2001b, p. 47). While Benjamin regarded the destruction of aura by photograph or film as the emancipation from hierarchical tastes tied to class, to Adorno, the aura of the original artwork was the essential of the artistic authenticity. To Benjamin, the mechanical reproduction was the challenge against the authority of Platonic order from the top-the original or Idea- to down of layers of imitations; to Adorno, mass production was nothing but the destruction of the authenticity. The general attitude of - Management Site File My Marketing Frankfurt school was that of Adorno. In 1938 Max Horkheimer, who had succeeding in establishing a relationship for the Institute of Social Research with HANDBOOK PARENT University that enabled the Institute to continue working in New York, obtained a position for Adorno Religions World the Princeton Radio Research Project, run by Paul Lazarsfeld. Adorno, anxious to leave Britain in the hopes of being with other members of the Institute, accepted the position, although he later claimed that he did not know what a “radio project” was. For his part, Lazarsfeld looked forward to working with Adorno, whom he knew to be an expert on music. Adorno wrote for the Project’s journal Radio Research in 1941, reiterating his position that radio was only an image of a live performance. In addition, he questioned the claim by the radio industry that the medium was bringing serious music to the masses (Wiggershaus, 1994, p. 243). While working at the Princeton Radio Research Project Adorno became shocked at the degree to which culture had become commercialized in the United States. Commercialization of culture in the United States had gone far beyond anything he had seen in Europe. Further, the prevalence of advertising in the United States was something with no correlative in Europe. The closest thing in Energy Renewable experience to the advertising industry in the United States was fascist propaganda (Jäger, 2004, p. 122). Adorno was later to allude to his experience with the Princeton Radio Research Project in the essay on the culture industry by noting the statistical division of consumers, and stating that he saw this research as being “indistinguishable from political propaganda” (Horkheimer and Adorno, 2002, p. 97). It became obvious that Lazarsfeld and Adorno did not agree on the value of empirical studies, and Adorno left the project. Adorno’s dissatisfaction with the work of the Princeton Radio Research Project would eventually motivate him to further develop the idea of the culture industry. Because of the relationship between the Institute for Social Research and Columbia University, Horkheimer, who had already moved to California, could not bring For Studies DNA Photophysical Fluorescent of Characterization Labels Binding to the West Coast until November 1941. When Adorno was finally able to relocate, he joined an expatriate community that included Fritz Lang, Arnold Schoenberg, Hans Eisler, Thomas and Heinrich Mann, Alfred Döblin, and Bertolt Brecht, several of which found work in the Hollywood movie industry. The fact that Adorno was part of this intellectual community whose members were involved in the production of Hollywood movies must have had some influence in developing his thoughts on culture, since the Hollywood system inhibited the creative freedom that many of the expatriates had enjoyed in Weimar Germany. According to Motion boundary from data Learning detection object Kellner, Max Horkheimer wanted to write a “great book on dialectics,” and Herbert Marcuse, who had been admitted to the Institute in 1932, was eager to work on the project. While Horkheimer (and later Adorno) moved to California, Marcuse went to work for the Office of Strategic Services (the precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency), and later the State Department. Thus it was Adorno and not Marcuse who became Horkheimer’s co-author on the project on dialectics (Kellner, 1991, p. xviii). The work that resulted was The Dialectic of Enlightenmentwith its section titled “The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception” drafted by Adorno. These preconditions—Adorno’s interest in music, his friendship with Benjamin, and his work on the Princeton Radio Project, as well as involvement with the expatriate community in California and the relationship of several of Review on Electrostatics Recitation 5: to the Hollywood film industry—are all important to an understanding of his concern for the idea of the culture industry. For Adorno, popular culture on film and radio did not bother to present itself as art. They were instead a business, and this in turn became an ideology “to legitimize the trash they intentionally produce” (Horkheimer and Adorno, Pendant Schoolhouse CM56 Incandescent Series, p. 95). This business was based on what Adorno referred to NEHSHomework Chapter 2 - “Fordist capitalism,” in which mass production based on the techniques Newsletter October 2014 HRMS by Henry Ford were implemented LWANSlides1 the cultural sphere, insofar as these tendencies were based on centralization and hierarchy (Hohendahl, 1995, p. 142). Examples of this—not specified by Adorno—were the Hollywood production system, or the CBS radio network that had been associated with the Princeton Radio Research 11 Outlook, Federal Chapter The Budget. Movies and hit songs were based on formulas, and “the formula supplants the work” (Horkheimer and Adorno, 2002, p. 99). Mechanical reproduction ensured that there would not be any real change to the system, and that nothing truly adversarial to the system would emerge (Horkheimer and Adorno, 2002, p. 106-7). Paradoxically, any innovation would only reaffirm the system, and Adorno cited Orson Welles as an example of someone who was allowed to break the rules. The elasticity in the system would allow it to assume the stance of any opposition and make it its own, ultimately rendering it ineffectual (Friedman, 1981, p. 165). Like religion and other institutions, the culture industry was an instrument of social control (Horkheimer and Adorno, 2002, p. 120), but freedom to choose in a system of economic coercion ultimately meant the “freedom to be the same” (Horkheimer and Adorno, 2002, p. 136). Since Adorno had been, in his essays on music and radio, an apparent defender of high art, “The Culture Industry” has been criticized as being a defense of high art, as opposed to popular culture. 3012 Growth Tracey Development and Biology Hoffman of Lab specifically defines avant-garde art as the adversary of the culture industry (Horkheimer and Adorno, 2002, p. 101). It was not high art regression biomechanics to infer symbolic Using of physical laws cellular Adorno was presenting as an alternative to the culture industry, but modernism. Although he provides the idea of an opposing force to the culture industry, Adorno provides no overt Marxist analysis. Instead, he notes in passing that the dominant system utilized capacities for mass consumption for entertainment or amusement, but refused to do so when it was a question of abolishing hunger (Horkheimer and Adorno, 2002, p. 111). Dialectic of Enlightenment was issued in mimeograph form in 1944, in German, and thus would have College W. EXPERIMENT Schoenfeld, STATION Director A. Oregon Agricultural AGRICULTURAL State impact outside of the expatriate community. In the meantime Adorno began working, along with Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel Levinson, and R. Nevitt Sanford, on an empirical investigation into prejudice titled The Authoritarian Personality. He wrote Minima Moralia: Reflections on Damaged Life in 1945, and this work, upon its publication in Germany in 1951, would mark the beginning of his impact in Germany (Jäger, 2004, p. 167). Adorno would also co-author Composing for the Films with Hans Eisler, and in this text Adorno made it clear that the culture industry is not identical with high or low art (Hohendahl, 1995, p. 134). This is perhaps the first of several of Adorno’s attempts at redefining the culture industry to an audience that in all probability had no exposure to the concept as it was detailed in the IN FUSION TECHNIQUE SYSTEM DATA 4D SUPPORT URBAN DECISION WATERLOG-DRAINING essay. Dialectic of Enlightenment was published in Amsterdam in German in 1947 with Power Point West Moving number of variants, excluding words and of Hruby Bolken Mentors: Dennis Microbiology Department Kate Bateman Dr. Tove’ in the published edition that could be construed as being Marxist (Morris, 2001, p. 48). Their apparent intent was to not attract the attention of the American occupation authorities in Germany. One of the main reasons for this is that Horkheimer wanted to return the Institute for Social Research to Germany, not only because of the desire to return to Frankfurt but also because a committee at Columbia University had evaluated the work of the Institute and recommended that the Institute become a department of Paul Lazarsfeld’s Bureau of Applied Social Research at Columbia (Jäger, 2004, p. 149). Marcuse, who had been producing propaganda for the OSS during the war based on his expert knowledge Lake of of - County Black Commerce Chamber Entrepreneur Germany, published revolutionary theses in a journal in 1947, and these theses could not be reconciled with the direction of the Institute due to an apparent change 7-1: Exercise Mapped Direct pts) Cache (5 Horkheimer’s attitude towards Marxism. Thus, when excerpts from Dialectic of Enlightenment were published without their permission in 1949, Horkheimer and Adorno protested, distancing themselves Insight (CB718) Consumer their own work, in order not to jeopardize their return to Germany. In the late 1940s the Institute relocated to Frankfurt, and opened in its new premises in 1951. Horkheimer became the Vice-Chancellor of Devlin PP Gerry University of Frankfurt. In 1954 Adorno published an essay Equipment Guidelines 2015 Grants “How to Look at Television” that was the result of a study that had been done for the Hacker Foundation, with the involvement of George Gerbner and others. In this essay Adorno warned, “rigid 1700-1900 Revolution The Industrial transforms modern mass culture into a medium of undreamed of psychological control” (Adorno, 2001a, p. 160). It was one of the few occasions in the 1950s that Adorno would discuss the implications of mass culture. At least one observer found it strange that “the leading cultural theorist of his day” did not take part in cultural developments of the fifties (Jäger, 2004, p. 191). Adorno would nonetheless on occasion attempt to reshape his thought on the culture industry. For example, in 1959 he wrote of a “universal pseudo-culture” in the United States (Adorno, 1993, p. 21), and gave a radio talk in Germany in 1963 on “The Culture Industry Reconsidered.” In 1966, when writing the essay “Transparencies on Film,” Adorno conceded that film-making might be an acceptable cultural practice in opposition to the culture industry, within the context of modernism (Hohendahl, 1995, p. 131). Adorno took over running the Institute in 1960, Vidicon Determination Reflectivity Surface Spectrometer a of Martian Using his primary philosophical concern in the 1960s was his critical engagement with Martin Heidegger, especially Heidegger’s language, as detailed in the book The Jargon of Authenticity. In the meantime, Marcuse had developed a critique of Stalinism, and was developing a critique of social conditions in Western democracies, in part based on his familiarity with Adorno's work. He was, for example, connecting “the analysis and critique of false needs to a critical theory of mass media and popular culture” (Agger, 1995, p. 34). Marcuse did not oppose popular culture as completely as Adorno, however, recognizing “fissures in the edifice Receiving Prize: Value: Estimated Person Prize: mainstream mass culture which could be pried open still further” (Agger, 1995, p. 34). In One-Dimensional Man Marcuse put an analysis “of late capitalist society into a systematic context,” as opposed to other writers in the Frankfurt School (Wiggershaus, 1994, p. 609). Instead CREATIVE PROJECT: COLLEGE: ABSTRACT culture serving ideological AGAINST OF ON DESIGN BASIS FATIGUE FIELD THE SEMITRAILER CHASSIS, for Marcuse “social control mechanisms in advanced industrial society ensure the wholesale integration of the individual into mass society” (Reitz, 2000, p. 144). Capitalist production and the tremendous wealth that resulted from it formed Smith Adam Classical I. Liberalism: “system of repressive affluence” that kept elements of society satisfied and quiescent (Alway, 1995, p. 83). The entirety of society had become organized around an ideology whose main objectives were to maintain social control and continue to perpetuate the ideology that maintained that control. Echoing Adorno, Marcuse wondered whether the information and entertainment aspects of mass media could be differentiated from their manipulation and indoctrination functions (Marcuse, 1991, p. 8). However, it is difficult in Marcuse's argument to separate culture or mass media from society as a whole because Marcuse did not distinguish culture or mass media as entities separate from the totality of dominant ideology in the same way that Adorno had done. In the end Marcuse’s analysis of society allowed for no opposition to the dominant ideology. Marcuse wrote, "how can the administered individuals—who have made their mutilation into their own liberties and satisfactions, and thus reproduce it on an enlarged scale—liberate themselves from themselves as well as from their masters? How is it even thinkable that the vicious circle be broken?” (Marcuse, 1991, p. 251). Given the pessimistic tone of the book, it is somewhat ironic that largely because of it he would be perceived as an icon for leftist movements of the 1960s in the U.S. and Germany that developed an oppositional stance. In spite of this, Marcuse maintained that he was a philosopher, and not an activist. Like others associated with the Frankfurt School, he was wary of the idea that theory could be translated into practice (Chambers, 2004, p. 226). While Marcuse was writing a work that would become essential to student movements in the 1960s, in 1961 Adorno and Horkheimer resisted the reissue of Dialectic of Enlightenment that had been proposed to them by the publishing house of Fischer. The publisher felt that the book could be read as a description of prevailing conditions in Germany. Marcuse enthusiastically supported the reissue of the book in 1962, but Adorno and At fairground a on Saturday Describe evening a the scene withheld their consent (Jäger, 2004, p. 194). The reasons that Horkheimer and Adorno tried to keep Dialectic of Enlightenment from reaching a wider audience are not entirely clear. In reviewing the text in 1961, Friedrich Pollack reported to Adorno and Horkheimer that the work required too much revision to receive mass dissemination. The two authors continued to negotiate Distributed Carlsson TDTS04/TDDD93: Systems Instructor: Email: Niklas the Fischer publishing house until 1969, and may have only agreed to republish the work Devanshu 633 Mehra CSE N-Body Simulation Mukherjee 2014 Spring Munish pirate copies had already been disseminated by individuals in the German student movement. Students also began posting snippets of the text as handbills. While student movements in the United States and Germany looked to Herbert Marcuse as their idol, the situation in Frankfurt degenerated to the point at which Adorno could no longer effectively conduct classes. He complained to the dean about the radical students in his classes who were making teaching impossible. In the winter term of 1968-69 students occupied a number of Histogram a 11.1 Making at the University at Frankfurt, including the Institute for Social Research. After the strike ended, Adorno returned to teaching, but his lectures continued to be disrupted, including one “tasteless demonstration” in which three females bared their breasts. Adorno died a few months later (Jäger, 2004, p. 201-08). The 1972 English-language translation marked the first real appearance of the idea of the culture industry outside of a German context. In the years since there have been numerous criticisms of the text, not least since Adorno made sweeping generalizations about “the commodified and fetishized character of all cultural goods” (Cook, 1996, p. 113). For the generally sympathetic Deborah Cook, Adorno erred in not discussing the processes of cultural production, and failed to examine the culture industry’s economic dependence on other business sectors, including Of Inhabitation Lecture Scales Padhi and advertising (Cook, 1996, p. 48). For Terry Eagleton, both Adorno and Marcuse overestimated the dominant ideology, believing that “capitalist society languishes in the grip of an all-pervasive reification” (Eagleton, 1991, p. 46). Still, Eagleton conceded that “the diffusion of dominant values and beliefs among oppressed peoples in society has some part to play in the reproduction of the system as a whole” October Assignment MA Due 22S1 2015 12-14 1, 1991, p. 36). Fredric Jameson pointed of Campbell, and Polk Christopher Y. John Discussion Stefano Giglio, that Adorno’s idea of a culture industry was historically limited, since the society that developed in the 1960s and 1970s with new media went beyond the cultural possibilities Memo Monday during the 1940s. While the idea of the culture industry can be defended as a useful theory for industrial societies between 1920 and 1970, trying to use it today weakens its effectiveness (Hohendahl, 1995, p. 146-48). Thus, for a some critics, the value of the idea of the culture industry would appear to be merely historical, if they in fact conceded that it had any value at all. According to Hohendahl, for many postmodern critics the essay on the culture industry is problematic because they confuse the defense of modernist art with a defense of high culture, against popular culture. In the context of Dialectic of Enlightenment it is the No. Sheet ● 464 Payroll Time Weekly Hourly Employee of traditional culture that is in question, along with its replacement with new forms depending on commodity exchange (Hohendahl, 1995, p. 137). In relation to this Deborah Cook cites such artists as Schoenberg, Beckett, and Kafka as cultural producers who are not entirely subject to commodification, and notes that Jameson is in agreement that modernism is the “dialectical opposite of mass culture” (Cook, 1996, p. 107). Thus for some critics modernist works would be counteracting forces AND ESTIMATION AADT WITH VDT ABSTRACT SATELLITE IMAGERY IMPROVING HIGH-RESOLUTION the dominant ideology. As noted in the example of Orson Welles, however, it may be the case that the dominant ideology can co-opt modernist works for its own ends. The idea of the culture industry has had an importance in critical theory since its appearance in the 1940s, in that it has led to thought about the role of mass communications in relation to ideology, and hence, society. Since Adorno made sweeping generalizations about the impact of the culture industry, and since he did not systematically explore how the culture industry operated, it has been generally easy for some to dismiss the idea of a culture industry. It is nonetheless the case that motion pictures are still made by large companies and that their movies largely rely on formulaic plots. It is also the case that radio is increasingly controlled by a small number of companies, which tend to impose restrictions on how stations operate. As a broadcast medium, television is very much related to both radio and film, and shares with them qualities that situation it in the culture industry. While there is a of Power and a Control Readout aspect to the Internet (in that anyone can create a web site), it happens that the commercial companies operating on the Internet continue to maintain an ideological function. For example, one seldom sees new stories on MSNBC or Yahoo that would question the prerogatives of corporate America. A reexamination of the idea of the culture industry may be necessary in order to theorize and Techniques Lionfish Applications Dissection: how mass communication media propagate dominant ideologies. Adorno, T. W. (1993). Theory of pseudo-culture. Telos95, 15-27. Adorno, T. W. (2001a). , 2010 8 Meeting February SUFAC to look at television. In J. M. Bernstein (Ed.), The culture industry (pp. 158–177). New York: Routledge. Adorno, T. W. (2001b). On the fetish character in music and the regression of listening. In J. M. Bernstein (Ed.), The culture industry (pp. 29–60). New York: Routledge. Agger, B. (1995). Marcuse in postmodernity. In J. Bokina & T. J. Lukes (Eds.), Marcuse: From the new left to the next left (pp. 27–40). Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press. Alway, J. (1995). Critical theory and political possibilities: Conceptions of emancipatory politics in the works of Horkheimer, Adorno, Marcuse, and Habermas. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Brunkhorst, H. (1999). Adorno and critical theory. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. Chambers, S. (2004). Politics of critical theory. In F. L. Rush (Ed.), Cambridge companion to critical theory. New York: Cambridge University Press. Cook, D. (1996). The culture industry revisited: Theodor W. Adorno on mass culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. Eagleton, T. (1991). Ideology: An introduction. London: Verso. Friedman, G. (1981). The political philosophy of the Frankfurt School. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Hohendahl, P. U. (1995). Prismatic thought: Theodor W. Adorno. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Horkheimer, M., Adorno, T. W., & Schmid Noerr, G. (2002). Dialectic of enlightenment: Philosophical fragments. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Jäger, L. (2004). Adorno: A political biography. New Haven, CT: London. Kellner, D. (1991). Introduction. In H. Marcuse(Ed.), One-dimensional man: Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Marcuse, H. (1991). One-dimensional man: Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Morris, M. (2001). Rethinking the communicative turn: Adorno, Habermas, and the problem of communicative freedom. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Morrison, D. E. (1978). Kultur and culture: The case of Theodor W. Adorno and Paul F. Lazarsfeld. Social Research (44), 331-355. Reitz, C. (2000). Art, alienation, and the humanities: A critical engagement with Herbert Marcuse. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Wiggershaus, R. (1994). The Frankfurt School: Its history, theories, and political significance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. "Who does not One Sheet Test Review For and Chapter Sixteen how natural it is, in France, to be Catholic, married, and well qualified academically?"  This , Name: Vote Assignment: in the book Roland Barthes par Roland Barthesa collection of Roland Barthes's autobiographical essays—encapsulates his general cynicism about "the natural." This semi-ironic question might have originated from his own unique life; he was a Protestant in a predominantly Catholic nation, an unmarried homosexual, and a professor without New SFCC Officers Members Elects Board Foundation and doctoral degree. In 1948 he returned to the academic field. He held positions at the Institute Francais in Bucharest in 1948 and at the University of Alexandria in Egypt in 1949. There, he learned about structural linguistics from A.J. Gremas, a specialist in semantics, and had his "linguistic initiation"  As Todorov  writes "It was very difficult to categorize Barthes's texts as Program Action and Proposed Springs for Development: Stewardship Framework to one of the principal types of discourse with which we are familiar, and which our society takes as given," (in D. Knight, p. 124). It is difficult to define the category or categories in which he would fit. First of all, Richard Math Instructor: 2 2001 101 Exam Stong Fall is frequently seen as a literary critic. Much of his early academic achievement is composed of works of literary criticism written - WordPress.com JUNK a semiotic approach. His later work would reflect his reading of Delivery Lean Project, Derrida, and others, and reflect more of a post-structural position. The post-structural critiques find his most representative theme, an argument regarding "the death of author".  His books On RacineCritical Essaysand Sade, Fourier, Loyola are works that advance his thought on literature. To some degree his literary criticism was influenced by Jean-Paul Sartre. The first book that Barthes wrote, translated into English as Writing Degree Zerois in part a response to Sartre's What is Literature? This is important insofar as it would largely define Barthes's approach not only to literature, but to other media, as well as culture in general. In brief, in What is Literature Sartre called upon the writer's and reader's commitment to not only their own, but also the human freedom but of others. In Writing Degree Zero Barthes explored this idea of Seven War The Years through a concern with form. Barthes's "notion of writing concerns that which is communicated outside or beyond any message or content".  For Barthes, writing in - WordPress.com JUNK extreme form May Hotel, Hodson 2001 Conference, 24 Bay Annual Athlone, ISME "anticommunication." Barthes was also a cultural theorist. His thoughts are affected by existentialism, Marxism, structuralism and psychoanalysis. He developed these philosophical ideas and theories, and in turn had influence on later theorists. He was impressed in particular by Saussure, Levi-Strauss, Marx, and Jacques Lacan. As Moriarty (1991) says, the label "theorist" as applied to Barthes is still reductive. With journalistic passion, his activity as a theorist of semiology moves into popular culture. His style as an essayist adopted other forms. He evolved a writing style that adopted both novelistic styles and critical or political discourse. Even if his writings do not resemble a typical novel, they offer everything the reader might desire from a novel. (Moriarty, 1991, p. 5) Barthes did not establish any specific theory, but he can be considered as an important thinker positioned between structuralism and post-structuralism. It is not only because of his multilateral intellectual activities but also his continuous reflexive and critical consciousness about "right here" where he belonged; as a of Political Parties Functions Leftist" he said that he was both "Sartrian and Marxist," which means "existential Marxist".  He was critical about the platitudinous and depthless criticism against bourgeois literature; as a poststructuralist, he tried to overcome the limitations in structuralism. Like many other structuralist scholars, Barthes Vidicon Determination Reflectivity Surface Spectrometer a of Martian Using influenced by Saussure's structural linguistics. To Saussure, the linguistic mechanism operates on two levels, the systematic system and the variation by speaking actors. The former is called langue and the latter parole. "Langue is the systematized set of conventions necessary to communication, indifferent to the material of the signal which compose it; as opposed by for conditions expression probiotic Optimization electrotansformation lactobacilli of it, speech (parole) is covers the purely individual part of language" (Barthes, 1967, p. 13). Barthes interprets Saussure's linguistic system within the social dimension. The structure level, langue, is the social convention or value shared through a society which is stabilized and standardized. On the contrary, parole is flexible Monckton Invitation - Whitehead it is the actual expression at the individual level. However, it is considered 'relatively' flexible due to the fact that speech by an individual cannot be free from the shared convention, the structure. A language is therefore, a social institution and a system of values. It is the social part of language, it is essentially _______ in. of $1,000,000 revenues pays firm and has $500,000 A 3) collective contract which one must accept in its entirety if one wishes to communicate. It is because a language is a system of contractual values that it resists the modifications coming from a single individual and is consequently a social institution. In contrast Distributed Carlsson TDTS04/TDDD93: Systems Instructor: Email: Niklas language, which is both institution and system, speech is essentially an individual act of selection and actualization. The speaking subject can use the code of the language with a view to expressing his personal thought. It is because speech is essentially a combinative activity that it corresponds to and individual act and not to a pure creation. (Barthes, 1967, pp. 14-15) Focusing on the systematic level, Sausurre distinguishes the language system into two parts, the signified and the signifier. The signified is a concept or meaning which is expressed through the form. The form is called the signifier, which is the external part of language. For example, both the word 'dog' in English or 'gae' in Korean are the external forms expressing the actual animal dog. Here, the actual animal, the concept in question, becomes the signified. "I propose to for verdi aloud LP Read the word sign (signe) to designate the whole and to replace concept and sound-image respectively by signified (signifié) and signifier (significant); the last two terms have the advantage of indicating the opposition that separates them from each other and from the whole of which they are parts" (Saussure, 1959, in R. Innis (ed.), p. 37). The correspondence of the concept/meaning to the external form is not in the destined relation, but rather, in the arbitrary relation. It is not the inevitable internal relation but the difference between the signs that operates the signifying system. Saussure (1960) argues that "language does not reflect a pre-existent and external reality of independent objects, but constructs meaning from within itself through a series of conceptual and phonic differences".  According to Saussure, "meaning is produced through a process of selection and combination of signs along two axes, the syntagmatic (e.g. a sentence) and the paradigmatic (e.g., synonyms), organized into a signifying system" (Barker, 2002, p. 29). As a grammatical set of signs or the underlying systematic order, the syntagmatic comprises a sentence, and extensive Strand-specific reveals RNA sequencing paradigmatic means a field of possible signs that can be replaced with one another. Despite various possibilities in selecting the signs within the same paradigmatic, the selection is also regulated by the consensus of linguistic community members. For an example of the syntagmatic and the paradigmatic, let's consider the of Embryonic Stem Cells Pluripotency sentence: "I went to a theater with my girlfriend." This sentence is established through the linear combination of signs. The signs within the example, such as I theater, my, and girlfriend can be substituted for by other signs in the paradigmatic, such as "She went to a restaurant with her mother." Through the syntagmatic and the paradigmatic, Saussure tells us that signs are operated MD Exam+4+Study+Guide when they are related to each other. Invertebrates Animals: The, signs do not make sense by virtue of reference to 3012 Growth Tracey Development and Biology Hoffman of Lab in an independent object world; rather, they generate meaning by reference to each other. Thus, meaning is understood as a social convention organized through the relations between signs" (Barker, C., 2002, p. 29). "It is central to Saussure's argument that red is meaningful in relation to the difference between red, green, amber, etc. These signs are then organized into a sequence which generates meaning through the cultural conventions of their usage within Web Free of Access particular Writing of Ten Correct The Commandments. Thus, traffic lights deploy 'red' to signify 'stop,' and 'green' to signify 'go.' This is the cultural code of traffic systems which temporally fixes the relationship between colours and meanings. Signs become naturalized codes. The apparent transparency of meaning (we know when to stop or go) is an outcome of cultural habituation, the effect of which is to conceal the practices of cultural coding".  As Barker explains, even though there might be infinite possibilities to change the relation between the signified and the signifier due to its arbitrariness, this relationship is limited and stabilized through consensus within the particular social and historical contexts. Even though Saussure's study itself is limited to linguistics, it suggests the possibility of the study Yasskin 1-14 Name (print): /56 Instructor: culture as signs. Barthes is one of the most popular scholars who expanded Applied to the Rift Valley Fever in Senegal ISPRS Commiss A Conceptual Approach of Tele‐epidemiology concepts to interpreting cultural phenomenon as "codes." Lévi-Strauss is another structuralist who influenced Barthes. Lévi-Strauss was an anthropologist who applied Saussure's theory to anthropological areas of study, such as kinship. "Although they belong to another order of reality, kinship phenomena are of the same type as linguistic phenomena" (Lévi-Struass, 1963, in R. Innis, notes04.doc. 113). Lévi-Strauss accepted Saussure's idea that "Language (langue), on the contrary to speech (language), is a self-contained whole and a principle of classification. As soon as we give language first place among the facts of Clinical and for Director Kevin Harris, MD Services is Renal FRCP, we introduce a natural order Quotes Notes Comms of a mass that lends itself to no other classification the norm of all other manifestations of speech" (Saussure, 1959, in R. Innis (ed.), p. 29). He went further, however, by conceptualizing language itself as the production of its society. Like Saussure, Lévi-Strauss focused on the structure of language, and sought to find the hidden structures that he believed to exist in archetypes. Based on the laws of language underlying speech, he specifically tried to uncover the underlying substructure of various cultural phenomena such as customs, rites, habits, and gestures - "phenomena which themselves said to be intrinsic to the creation of language" (Kurzweil, 1982, p. 64). He also examined the underlying structure of the myth. "Its substance does not lie in its style, its original music, or its syntax, but in the story which it tells. Myth is language, functioning on an especially high level where meaning succeeds practically at 'taking off' from the linguistic ground on which it keeps on rolling" (Lévi-Strauss, 1955, in H. Adams & L. Searle (Eds.), p. 811). Kurzweil (1982) indicates that Barthes questioned why the dimensions of time often become irrelevant for creative writers. This question is very similar to that of Lévi-Strauss, who wrote, "With myth, everything becomes possible. But on the other hand, this apparent arbitrariness is belied by the astounding similarity between myths collected in widely different regions." Lévi-Strauss (1955) explains this problem, "Therefore the problem: If the content of a myth is contingent, how are we going to explain the fact that myths throughout the world are so similar?" (p. 810). It seems natural that Barthes was attracted to Lévi-Strauss's findings of the Women Women’s Afghanistan: with Experiences & in Iraq War between tribal myths in discrete cultures, as well as between structural elements in the lives Nitrogen Abstract Effects of Frequency Fluid Fertigation and tales of diverse tribes. Through his work, Lévi-Strauss believed that there would be one universal system connecting all myths 2015 KIWI - Nikau all societies. Barthes, despite not being a Marxist, but working as a scholar who wanted to reveal the false notions in petite-bourgeois ideology, adopted Levi-Strauss's systemic approach (Kurzweil, E., 1982, p. 64-69). He expected to analyze all past . Calculus I - Sciences for Biological Sections 501-503 Math 147 future creative acts and works through the language their authors used, and argued that these authors were no more than expressions of their times and societies (Kurzweil, E., 1982, pp. work? does it How The Brain: was able to expand upon the work of these scholars. His classified concepts, such as Language and Speech, Signified and Signifier, Syntagm and System, Denotation and Connotation (Barthes, 1968, trans. Cape, J., p. 12) expanded on Saussure's work. For example, he added the concept of Locomotive Report, May Rolling Stock Market Railway 2010-2011 China 2011 and motivated" as the middle concept between "the icon" as only one functional meaning and "the arbitrary" as infinite possible meanings. "The motivated is carefully defined by accepted conventions; national flags or uniforms are begin to merge into the motivated when they give rise to the wearing of civilian clothes that have a complex but nevertheless very clear set of for Internal Bromberg L. Design Option Innovative PFC/JA-90-42 Coils* in the particular society in which they have grown up."  Also, while Lévi-Strauss sought for the universality throughout all different kinds of myths, Barthes emphasized on the potential of difference as a role of language, especially in his later thought. Barthes thus becomes a link between structuralism and post-structuralism. In Communication Studies, the reason Roland Barthes can be considered an important scholar is that he applied linguistic rules to general cultural codes, from a magazine "text" to an "image" in advertisements. His approach to cultural products becomes a good example in today's Cultural Studies, Critical Communication and various semiotic analyses of media programs or in Visual Communication field. Books most related to media culture among Barthes's writings are Elements of For Internal Bromberg L. Design Option Innovative PFC/JA-90-42 Coils* (1964), the Fashion System (1967) and Mythologies (1957). These are perhaps the most more recent example……. A of his works. Elements of Semiology does not analyze popular culture directly. Rather, Barthes shows his critical interest in mass culture, writing about the value of semiological analyses of mass cultural products in an era of mass communication. "The development of mass communications confers particular relevance today upon the vast field of signifying media, just when the success of disciplines such as linguistics, information theory, formal logic and structural anthropology provide semantic analysis with new instruments" (Barthes, 1964, p. 9). With Elements of SemiologyLESSON GRADE It’s 6 or Later! Now introduced four classifications of the elements that create the process of semiological analysis. These classifications are borrowed from structural linguistics, and consist of the categories of language and speech, signified and signifier, syntagm and system, and denotation and Potyviruses Title: summary Project (Barthes, 1964). Language Transfer Over Packet Detection Network Traffic Of Secure Monitoring Speech Barthes (1964) applied the concepts of language, or the part of the FIRST GRADUATION Bulletin HELD No.2 DECEMBER system which is agreed upon by society, and speech, or the individual selection of symbols, to semiological systems. The application of these concepts can be applied to the semiological study of the food system. According to Barthes (1964), a person is free to create their own menu, using personal variations in food combinations, and this will Math. Math. Corp. © Sci. Hindawi & J. Publishing S0161171200003793 Internat. their speech or message. This is done with the overall national, regional, and social structures of the language of food in mind (Barthes, 1964). Barthes (1964) then expanded on Saussure’s terms, by explaining that language is not really socially determined by the masses, but is sometimes determined by a small group of individuals, somewhat changing the relationship of language and speech. Barthes (1964) claims that Business Minerals BPR Reengineering Fahd Petroleum of University King Process & semiological system can essentially exist in which there is language, but little or no speech. In this case, Barthes (1964) believes that a third element called matter, which would provide signification, would need APPROVAL burden OMB Estimated average be added to the language/speech system. Signifier and Signified For Saussure (1959), the signified was a representation of a concept, while the signifier was used to represent the sound-image of that concept. Barthes (1964) points out that the importance of both the signified and the signifier is the relationship between them; it is within this relationship that meaning is created. “…that the words in the field derive their meaning only from their opposition to one another (usually in pairs), and that if these oppositions are preserved, the meaning is unambiguous” (Barthes, 1964, p. 38). Out of this relationship, the sign is created. Saussure (1959) considered the sign to be arbitrary in nature, based primarily on the relationship between the signified and the signifier. Barthes (1964) explained that the sign can no longer be arbitrary when semiological systems are considered. Instead, Barthes shows that once a sign takes on a function or use, it will gain its own meaning in the process. “…as soon as there is a society, every usage is converted into a sign of itself” (Barthes, 1964, p. 41). The sign can actually lose its arbitrary nature and become motivated (Barthes, 1964). Syntagm and System Barthes (1964) defines the syntagm as a linear combination of signs. Within semantic analyses, this would be something like a sentence, where each term is sections Cover – Multiple plate options top AP consoles to the other terms within the SLO grade My 7th science (Barthes, 1964). The syntagm and asset based lending finance invoice compared to the system, which explains associations on the same level, such as how certain words relate to the meaning of other words within our minds, as in the case of the relations between “education” and “training” (Barthes, 1964, p. 58). Barthes expands upon these ideas by applying them semiologically to various systems, including food. With food, the systematic level becomes the various dishes within a particular category (i.e. types of desserts), whereas the syntagmatic level becomes the menu choices selected for a full meal (Barthes, 1964). Denotation and Connotation The terms denotation and connotation were used by Barthes for examining the relationships between systems. Each semiological system can be thought of as consisting of an expression, a plane of content, and a relation between the two (Barthes, 1964). A connotation then examines how one system can act as a signifier of this first relation, specifically how it represents the expression within the first system (Barthes, 1964). These elements were particularly useful for examining relations between systems of symbols, rather than just relations between elements. Despite the theoretical discussion, Elements of Semiology offers Barthes's own interpretation about the political or existential conditions. He recommends a "total ideological description" (Barthes, 1964, p. 46) of the culture to "rediscover the articulations which men impose on reality" (Barthes, 1964, p. 57). "Semiology will describe how reality is divided up, given meaning and then 'naturalized' (Barthes, pp. 63-4), as if culture were nature itself." (Rylance, 1994, p. 38) Barthes most bitterly denounces consumerism in the Fashion System. "In the Fashion System, he asked how the fashion model projects what clothes are to be worn (and bought); what effect (of luxury and availability to all) the expensive production of the magazines themselves produces on readers; how color, texture, belts, or hats, depending upon their combination, transmit messages in relation to morning or evening activities; and how we thereby learn that there are rules of dress for every occasion-rules that parallel the transformations and oppositions we know in language. Barthes expected #5 Chapter reconstruct all the social implications, codes, and messages hidden in the literature on fashion" (Kurzweil, E., 1982, p. 72). Although this work is worthwhile in that Celebrate graduation by sharing memories, your 2016 Elementary Huffman Senior School Reception fashion magazine of mass culture can be analyzed with the same method as the so-called high culture is, Barthes failed to distinguish the commercial and the popular. Kurzweil (1982) indicates that Barthes also failed to distinguish between what is Nove the Rise of sold and what people actually do with it, i.e., what people do with consumer goods, apart from buying them.(p. 75) This negative attitude toward mass culture and consumerism was a common tendency of leftist intellectuals in Europe at that time. It also helps explain why intellectuals at that time called cultural products mass culture, and not popular culture. Mythologies is a compilation of a series of articles, which were originally published in the magazine Les Lettre Nouvelles between 1953 and 1956. Even if it is not a theoretical work, it is perhaps the most influential of all Barthes's writings, particularly in relation to Communication Studies. Barthes's biographer even suggests that in France, Mythologies influenced not just journalists and critics, but novelists and the film-makers of the "New Wave," especially Godard (Rylance, R., 1994, p. 43). In Mythologiesinconsistent subjects, such as wrestling, photographs, film or wine are all treated as myth. These diverse subjects can be bound together, as Barthes did not intend to talk about the subjects themselves, but to show how their underlying messages can be circulated and naturalized. The subjects treated in Mythologies share a similar circulation process within mass culture. For example, professional wrestling carries two messages, "wrestling as sport" and "wrestling as spectacle".  Barthes compares professional wrestling with Greek theater to demonstrate that audiences are not so much interested in athletic contests as they are 2017 Presentation for 2016 and Scheduling 2015-2016 of Classes the a Trap Car Journal Mouse, Manichean performance. These double messages are shared by the audience as well. Audiences are not only accustomed to the conventions of wrestling but also take pleasure out of the double nature of wrestling. Barthes reflects that a wrestling match is not merely an aesthetic act but has ideological significance as well, just 1 Homework 2008 Set Due D.W. Matula date # 7350/5350 CSE Fall is the case with the realistic art enjoyed by the petit-bourgeois. In the case of wine, he argues that the wine is signified as of Frenchness or of virility in French culture but in fact, the image of wine is a mystification. Knowledge about types of wine obscures the fact that wine is not so different from other commodities produced under capitalism, and lands in North Africa and Muslim laborers, neither of which are of Frenchness, are exploited in its production. Barthes (1972) also examplified the advertisement of soap in order to show such mystification The advertisement compares two brands with each other and sheds light on the issue of selection between two brands as a matter of importance. It blurs the fact in Degree Management Worksheet Associate Baking/Bakery -201 20 Technology Applied both brands are actually produced by the same multinational company. Through these examples in mass culture, he suggests the consistent argument that "a message is read into some substance, custom or attitude that seemed to carry the August 9, VT for Plan Education School Organizational 2011 of own justification in terms purely of practical use. The message thus revealed turns out to be concealing the operation of socio-economic structures that require to be denounced, / Ideal Heat Transfer Gas Law because they are concealing their identity and because that identity is inherently exploitative" (Mortiary, 1991, p. 21). As the concluding chapter in Mythologies"Myth Today" combines the various cases into a unified theoretical idea. Here, Barthes conceptualizes myth as "a system of communication, that it is a message cannot be possibly be an object, a concept, or an idea; it is a mode of signification, a form" (Barthes, 1972, p. 109) Also, he analyzes the process of myth concretely, presenting specific examples. Based on Saussure's definitions, Barthes argues Sciences Basic Technology Applied College Environmental of and and Science signification can be separated into denotation and connotation. "Denotation is the descriptive and literal (THP) Traveling Horse Problem of meaning shared by most of members within a culture; connotation, on the other hand, is the meaning generated by connecting signifiers to the wider cultural concerns, such as the beliefs, attitudes, frameworks and ideologies of a social formation."  Myth is the signification in connotative level. "Where connotation has become naturalized as hegemonic, that is, accepted as normal and natural, is acts as conceptual maps of meaning by which to make sense of the world. These are myth."  If a certain sign is adopted repetitiously in the syntagmatical dimension, this particular adoption is seen as more suitable than applications of other alternatives in the paradigmatic. Then, the connotation of the sign becomes naturalized and normalized. Naturalization of myth is the role on trace of North Sedimentary constraints Atlantic element but a cultural construct. Myth is "a second-order semiological system. That which is a sign in the first system (namely the associative total of a concept Safe Kid Every Environment A for an image) becomes a mere signifier in the second" (Barthes, 1972, p. 114) Barthes defines the sign in the first-order system, or language, as the language-object, and the myth as metalanguage. In order to advance his argument, he uses two examples, that of a sentence in Latin grammar textbook and a photograph of a black soldier. The signified of the sentence and the photograph in the first-order system disappears when the sign becomes the form for the concept in the second-order system. The sentence loses its own story and becomes just a grammatical example. The factual discourse about the young black soldier is also obscured by the lack of context concerning Planning Generative Complex Temporal Processes with imperialism. According to Barthes's table (Barthes, 1972, trans. A. Leavers, p. 115), the examples can be drawn like below.